The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: N - O - P

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
NANA – mother (dial.) (Western Bulgaria) NANA [DE, 166], NAN [IJa, 220; GASK, 395] – ’mother’ in Jazguljami, Ishkashimi, Wakhi 

NENE (‘mother’) in Talish [TRS, 289]  

NANA (‘mother’) in Chechen [ChRS, 311]

Jazguljami, Ishkashimi
NANI-NA – a lulling refrain, "hushaby, lullaby" Compare to the Georgian NANINA (the same) [TG, 409] and the Persian NANI-NANU. 

It is interesting that the Georgians call the cradling NANI, and the Talish – the cradle itself [TRS, 151]

turk. ninni "lullaby" < pers. nenu: "cradle"
NANKAM – to sleep A derivative from NANA    
NA ROK! AJ NA ROK! – Cheers! (dial.) (Also in Romanian) From the Pamirian ROG (‘health’) [RPDS, 256] 

"NA ROG!" = ‘Cheers!’ in some l-s such as Mundzhani.

NEGA – bliss (noun) From the Eastern Caucasian NAMK (‘a sleep’), NEK (‘a nap, a dooze’) [EB, 84]

This shows that the initial meaning of NEGA was ‘a sweet nap’.

Eastern Caucasian  
NEKA – let  Not found in the Slavic l-s. Close to the Pamirian exclamation NEKI (‘Good work! Good!’) [IJa, 219] Ishkashimi  
NEREZ – a male pig, a boar From the Pamirian/Persian NER (‘a male animal’) 

The closest analogy is the Mundzhani NERSH (‘a male pig’) [AG, 331]

NEFELEN – ill (dial.) (adj.) NIFENZH (‘ill’) [ChRS, 253]  

NIFEN (‘a curse, a misfortune’) [TRS, 154]

NENKI – a breast, a bossom (Western Bulgaria) There exist only Eastern Caucasian correspondences: NINI, NANA, NENE, NEKHE [ChRS, 311]    
NIKS, NIC, sometimes NCKI – an exclamation of contempt Compare to the Pamirian NJKS (‘a failure, a defect’) Pamirian  
NUGA – nougat – a type of hard white khalva NEGA (‘hard, strong’) [AG] Mundzhani romanian nuga < lat. nux "nut" (x as in latin ks). 

it is not arabic in spite of the alteration of forms with and without t. I don't know if there is a greek angle. 

the englsih word "nougat" goes to western romance languages (oxford english dictionary) from a proto-romance *nuca:tum < latin nux.

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
OBACHE – however  BJACHI (‘in particular, specially’) [ARS, 82] Pashto  
OBECA – an earring ABOCA (‘an earring’) [SH, 91] Eastern Caucasian  
OBICH – love, affection, fondness OBA (‘to kiss’) [ChRS, 320]  

OBJUCH (‘a kiss’) [AV, 127]

Eastern Caucasian  
OK – a horse-collar (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen)  OK (‘yoke’) [EB,31]    
OLELE! – Oh dear! Dear me! Identical to the Pamirian OLELE [DE, 181] Jazguljami  
OMAN – elecampane  Compare to the Persian HOMAN (‘a type of grass’) [PRS, I]    
ONCHE – in the children’s expression "ONCHE, BONCHE, SCHUPENO PIRONCHE." ("Onche, bonche, broken nail.") ONCHUN, UN (‘a needle, an awl’) [DE, 85]  

The Bulgarian ONCHE probably meant ‘a needle’.

Jazguljami prob. turk. incik boncuk (odds and ends, boncuk, older and dial. bo*ng*cuk "bead", incik prob < inci ("pearl") + k (dim. suffix)
otherwise from onca bunca "like this or that")
OP – an edge, a point  YUWG (‘an arrow’) [AG, 390]  

UP (‘an arrow’) in Chuvash [RChS, 128]

Mundzhani yuwg < turkic oq (arrow, same in turk. - ok) 
chuvash has ye~p (needle) cogante with yebe in south siberian turkic. 
the bulgarian word seems cognate to chuvash.
OPAJ – get up! (children word) Identical to the Dardic OPAJ [DIE, 233] Dardic  
OPASHKA – a tail  From the Pamirian stem PAS (‘behind’) 

APASHK, OPASHK (‘back, rear’, adj.) [DE, 13]

OKHLJUV – a snail  Probably from the same stem as OKHLO (‘a sliding object’) [ChRS, 322] Chechen  
OSHAV – stewed dried fruit, dried fruit compote From the Pamirian/Persian KHOSH (‘sweet’, adj.) + AV (‘water’), literally – ‘a sweet water’). The disappearance of the initial KH is the same as that in ALKHA from KHALKA in the expression ALKHASI KUPE. Pamirian turk. ho$af    <     pers. xo^$a^b probably through kurdish xo^$a^v
xo$ "sweet, nice" a:b (a^v in kurdish) (ottoman xo:$a:b,  xo$ < xwe$ (for example kurdish) xo:$a:f)
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
PAZJA – to guard, to protect; to keep PAZ (‘to guard’) [SIJa, 1980]  

PASJNA (‘a guarding’) [ARS, 92]

PAJVANT – hobbled, with tied legs. In the expression "konjat pase na pajvant". From the Pamirian/Persian PAJ (‘a leg) + VAND (‘a tie’). 

PAJWEND (‘a tie’) [ARS, 132]

Pamirian turk. (litt. ottoman) paybende < persian pa:y bende
PAK – again  PAKA (‘tomorrow’) [LRS, 258]  

PAK (a word from the folk tales – it was believed that if somebody pronounced it, the disappeared water would appear again’) [GASK, 409]

PALAMARKA – a swaphook  PAJLA (‘a glove’) [SRS, 128] Sarikoli turk. palamar "hawser, mooring rope" < biz. greek palamarin "cable" 

also ital. palamara "cable". see tietze.

PALAPUTRA – in the expression "Pribiraj si palaputrata" ("Pack your belongings [and get out]!"). PRLAPURI (‘objects collected in one place, a baggage’) [MGA, 167; ARS, 115] Pashto prob. turk. pIlIpIrtI - a jingle. prob. pul (< pers. < greco-latin, stamp,  money - in azeri) + pIrtI from yIrtIk pIrtIk - i.e. yIrtIk = "torn" 
prla pu:rti: (pashto) = suitable
PALASKA – a cartridge-pouch PALASTA (‘a girdling object, a bracelet’) [AG, 139] Mundzhani turk. palaska < hungarian palack (palatsk, bottle, vessel), < germanic or latin "flask" etc. ?
PALESHNIK – a ploughshare  PALA (‘a plough’) [IJa, 221], also the Sanskrit PALA 

The closest analogy is the Pashto PAL (‘a ploughshare’) [MGA, 155; ARS, 93]

Ishkashimi, Pashto
PANDIZ – a prison (jargon) Pamirian/Persian BANDIZ (‘a barrier, bars’) [ARS, 93; etc.] Pashto  
PANDISHPAN – unclear word PANDOME (‘to swell, to rise’) [TRS, 170]  

It shows PADISHPAN initially meant ‘a risen cake’.

PANTA – a hinge  PANDA (‘a link, a tie’) [ARS, 118] Pashto  
PAPUNJAK – a hoopoe  PAPUK (‘bird’s comb, crest’) [SRS, 123]  

PIPUKI (‘a hood’) [IJa, 225]  

PAPU (‘a hood; a type of cuckoo’) [TRS, 170]  

=> PAPUNJAK got his name from its high and bright crest.

PAPUR – a (bul)rush  PAPR (‘a coarse grass’) [GASK, ARS, etc.] Pashto, Wakhi  
PARAKENDE – an agricultural piece of lands, detached from the other plots  Pamirian/Persian PARKANDA (‘isolated, detached’) [AG, 339] Pamirian turk. perakende "retail, detached" < pers. pera:kende "detached"
PARTAKESHI – paraphernalia. In the expression "Pribiraj si partakeshite!" ("Clear out! Pack up!") PARTAK, PARTOW (‘rubbish, garbage’) [GASK, 411; IJa, 227] Ishkashimi, Wakhi  
PAS – "pass" (in card games) 


Compare to the Pashto PAS (‘after’) [ARS, 109] Pashto eng. pass (> turk.) 
PASPAL – flour-dust, meal-dust PASPA (‘a waste, refuse’) [ARS, MGA] Pashto  
PASTA – a cake  Many languages in the world have similar words (the French ‘pastille’ - a type of bonbons; the Italian ‘pasta’ – macaroni; etc), but only the meaning of the Pashto PASTA (‘a cake’) is identical to the Bulgarian one. 

Compare also to PASTUR (‘a fine flour for cakes’) [ARS, 92]

Pashto turk. pasta "cake" < italian etc.
PASTRJA – to economise, to keep The only analogy is PASRA (‘saving’) [ARS, 92] Pashto  
PAT – bed(stead) (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) PATA (‘a board’) [MGA, 160]  

PATU (‘a bed, a bedding’) [ARS, 97]

PATARAN – in the expression "pataran i crvulan" Compare to the Eastern Caucasian PATRAN (‘duck’s’, adj.) [LRS, 269] Lezgin  
PATERICA – a crutch PATERA (‘a support’) [MGA, 160] Pashto  
PATKA – a duck PAT (‘a goose’) [LRS, 269]  

BAT (‘a goose’) in Georgian [SH, 21]

PATKAN – a rat (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) WATAM (‘a rat’) [DE, 27] Jazguljami  
PATRAV – bow-legged PATRAJ (‘a clamp, a brace’) [MGA, 158] Pashto  
PATJA – to suffer  BADI (‘an evil’) [SRS, 18] Sarikoli  
PEZJUL – an edge of a roof or a shelf under a window. The place where the flowerpots are put. Identical to the Pamirian PEZ’L (‘a roof’s edge’) [IJa, 225] Ishkashimi Seems to me alike Greek "pezouli" which means almost the same and it is certainly a very Greek word (Nikos Sarantakos).
PELERINA – a cape, a cloak  PELJAR (‘a curtain’) [ARS, 131] + the suffix –IN, as in ESTROGIN, KHLOBRIN. In the Pamirian l-s with –IN are formed adjectives from nouns. Thus PELERINA meant literally ‘a curtain clothing’. Pashto french pelerine < fem. of pelerin ("pilgim" i.e, pilgrim's cape) turk. pelerin (regarded as a foreign word)
PELTE – a type of jelly Compare to the Pamirian PILTE (‘sweet crusts’) Pamirian turk. pelte < pers. pa:lu:de < greek poltos mod. greek pelte
PENDARI – golden coins  PENDA (‘a row, a string’) [MGA, 207]  

PETAR (‘a interlacing’), PETAK (‘woman’s string of coins’) [ARS, 126]

PEPERUDA – a butterfly  PARPARONK (‘a butterfly’) [IJa, 224]  

PIRINPA – in Andian, PEPEAL – in Georgian [SH, 18]

PERUSTIJA – a trivet, a spider PERASTI (‘a stand, a base’) in Dardic (Kati) [AGK]  

PERUDZAJ (‘a perforated object’) [ARS, 128]

PERUSHAN – in the expression DAR-PERUSHAN DARD (‘a pain’) + PERISHAN (‘a suffering, grief’) [IJa, 194]  

The Bulgarian DAR-PERUSHAN was probably derived from an earlier DARD-PERISHAN = "pain and suffering".

Ishkashimi turk. derd < pers. derd 

turk. peri$an < pers. peri:$a:n

PERCHEM – a forelock PER (‘frontal’) + CHEM (‘a curl of hair’) [ARS, 101]  

The Bulgarian PERCHEM simply meant ‘frontal hair’.

Pashto turk. perc,em < pers. perc,em
PESTIL – damson cheese PASHT (‘to press, to squeeze’) [IJa, 189] Ishkashimi turk. pestil "dreid fruit pulp" < lat. pestilla, pestillum
PETALO – horseshoe  PET (‘round’) [SRS, 128] Sarikoli  
PECHAT – a seal BECHEDI (‘a seal’) in Georgian [TG]    
PECHELJA – to earn, to gain PICJL (‘to tie, to put aside’) [ARS, 127] Pashto  
PECHURKA – (field) mushroom PECHURAJ (‘small, fine’) [MGA, 160] Pashto  
PESHKIR – a towel Probably from PISHK (‘a gift’), with the meaning of ‘a gift towel’ [ARS, 130] Pashto turk. pe$kir "napkin", towel" (litt. ott., but common in the palace jargon) < pers. pi:$gi:r (pi:$ front) pers. pe$ki:r (a back loan) "napkin"
PINKAM SE – to torment o.s., to suffer PINEGKH (‘a painful strain’) [ARS, 132], PINJL (‘to suffer’) [ARS, 132] Pashto  
PINTIJA – a skinflint, a miser Similar to the Pamirian and Talish PINTI (‘filthy’) [TRS, 183] Pamirian turk. pinti < pinedos (eyuboglu), < pinaros (sarantakos) 
pinaros meaning "filthy" which seems to be shared by sanskrit.
PISSE, PISSANA – a cat PSSK (‘a cat’) [IJa, 227]  

PISSA (‘a cat’), PISAN (‘cat’, adj.) – Eastern Caucasian 

Probably from the stem PIS (‘motley, variegated’) in Talish [TRS, 183]

Ishkashimi ottoman pisik, pisi, bu"su"k 
mod. turk. pisi (child's lang.) 
also tatar pesi, romanian pisica~ 

turk. pisi pisi (to call a cat., in many turkic languages bisik, 
pisik, old turkic and central asian variants with m- and -$-. such 
cat names may come from anc. egypt. (cat goddess bastet) and 
probably passed through iranian. in persian it is considered a 
loanword from turkish. (steingass) persian has the native word 

NB english "pussy," also similar words in arabic. cat names were discussed in sci.lang in the summer. there seem to be some that recur in many unrelated languages.

Eastern Caucasian
PITA – (round) loaf, flat cake PIT (‘flattened (out)’) [MGA, 198], PITIK (‘ a type of bread’) Pashto greek pitta (phtta) < ital. ? < class. greek ? turk. pide
PISHLEME – an immature person Compare to the Pashto PESHLAMAJ (‘this morning’s, one who appeared this morning’) [ARS, 130] 

PISHLEME probably meant "of callow youth, greenhorn".

probab. turk. pi$ (front < pers. pi:$) + leme (/le/ denominal + /me/ verb. noun)
PISHMAN – sorry, regretful An old Persian and Pamirian word – PESH-MANAJ (‘thinking afterwards, regretting at the end’) [SIJa, 1980; ARS, 111] turkish pi$man < pers. pe$i:ma:n
PISHTJALKA – a tin whistle PISHTAK (‘a tin whistle’) [SRS, 130] Sarikoli  
PLANINA – a mountain PLAN (‘an expanse, a broadness’) [ARS, 114], PLANIN (‘huge, enormous’) Pashto  
PLESHTJA – to twaddle, to talk nonsense PLECH (‘to produce nonsensical sounds’) [GASK, 364] Wakhi  
POPRZHAM – to curse, to swear PRGA (‘a swear’) [ARS, MGA] Pashto  
PORKAM – to drink (jargon) PKHOR (‘a dinner, a big table’) [ChRS, 354] Chechen  
POSTULI – leather pants POST (‘a soft leather’) [ARS, 122] + the suffix –ULI, as in other old Bulgar words – MURZULI Pashto turk. post (hide) < pers. po^st 
POSTJA – to fast POST (‘to celebrate, to celebrate God’) [GASK, 417]  

= the initial meaning of POSTJA was ‘to celebrate God’.

POTKA – the first pole which is erected at a new plot as a sing of ownership. Hence ZAPOTVAM (‘to start festively some work, to assume officially office’) The word is quite old as evident by the Bulgarian medieval term POTKA (‘a fine for infringement ownership’s rights’) The only region having similar words is the Pamirs. There the acquisition of a new property and the building of a new house are called POTKH, and the present bestowed on the newly married couple are called POTKHSAJ [DE, 178, 291]. Jazguljami  
POTON – a ceiling The Talish PETON (‘above’) is the only analogy [TRS, 178, 291] Talish  
POSH – a big towel POSH (‘a type of towel’) [MGA, 192; ARS, 122]  

PUSH (‘a garment’) in Wakhi, Jazguljami, etc.

Pashto turk. pu^$ colloq. po$ (in compounds) (a wrapping, as in a headress) 

po$u light turban, "kafiyya".

Wakhi, Jazguljami
POSHTJA – to louse, to clean from lice POKT (‘to clean’) [GASK, 417] Wakhi  
PRAZ – leeks  PRASSA (‘leeks’) in Georgian [TG, 422]   turkish p(I)rasa < greek prason < lat. brassica (vegetable) pers. pera:se
PRANGI – fetters, chains  PRANKH (‘bend’) [ARS, 104] Pashto turkish p(I)ranga "chains for galley slaves, (later) forced laborers etc." < venet. branca 

(see tietze)

PRASHTAM – to send A common Persian/Pamirian word [SIJa, 211, 387]    
PREZID – a high rampart. In the XI c. AD Apocryphal chronicle: "Ispor car sgradi velik prezid ot Dunav do moreto". ("Car Ispor [Asparukh] built a great PREZID from Danube to the sea.") PERZID (‘a barrier’) [MGA, 166] Pashto  
PREZLO – iron container’s lugs, a handle in the form of a ring The only parallel is the Pamirians PRESHT (‘a ring’) [IJa, 227] Ishkashimi  
PRUST – a veranda; a hall PRUST (‘a bed’) in Kati [AGK]  

Probably the Bulgarian PRUST was named after the custom to sleep at the veranda in the summer.

PRSKAM – to squander PRSN (‘to squander’) [DE, 195] Jazguljami  
PRCKAM – to fart Identical to PRC in Pashto [ARS, MGA, 164] Pashto  
PRJAPOREC – a banner, a standard Compare to the Pamirian PARPAR (‘to flutter, to flap’), hence PARPARAI and BARBARIA (‘a banner’) Pamirian PARPAR prob. < `ar. farfar 
PSUVAM – to swear PECU, PCU (‘to curse’) [MGA, 198]  

POCH (‘a curse’) [ARS, 98]

PUZHAV – stupid, underdeveloped (in the districts of Vidin, Kula) PUCH (‘stupid, pitiful’) [ARS, 119]  

PUCKA (‘underdeveloped, unripe’) [ARS, 119]

PUKAM SE – to crack, to split PUG (‘a crack’) [ARS, 123]  

Also POY – Sarikoli [SRS, 130]

PUKANKI – pop-corn The only analogy is the Pashto PUKANKHA (‘a bladder, a bubble’) [ARS, 123] Pashto  
PULE – an ass’s foal Similar to the Dardic PULE (‘an offspring, the young of an animal’)  Dardic  
PULJA SE – to goggle FUL (‘to goggle’) [DE, 93] Jazguljami  
PUNGIJA – a pouch, a purse PUNGA (‘capital’) [ARS, 123] Pashto  
PUSHA – to smoke  A ver old eastern word. Compare to the Dravidian PUKHA (‘to smoke’) [TAM, 1078]    
PUSHT – a scoundrel; a rake PUSHT (‘an offspring’) [ARS, 110] Pashto turkish pu$t (scoundrel, more specifically a catamite) < pers. pu$t "backside"
PDAR – a field-keeper This word is attested near the Pamirs as early as the I-II c. AD – the Sogdian PADAR (PDR) (‘guard’, noun) [SIJa, 407]    
PDPDK – a quail  Closest in meaning is the Persian BADBADAK [PRS, II]  

But the Talish Pt-PT (‘to cry without interruption’) [TRS, 274] sounds closer.

PPESH – a (musk-)melon PARPANKHU (‘a wild watermelon’) [ARS, 100] Pashto  
PPKA – a pimple, blotch PUPAKA (‘a swelling, a big pimple’) [ARS, 118]  

PNGA (‘a bud’) [ARS, 118]  

The word PUPAKA is also found in Chuvash.

PPLJA – to creep, to crawl PAPLI (‘to scarcely move’) [MGA, 150]  Pashto  
PRZHA, (PRAZHA) – to fry PRAZHZHA (‘to fry’) in Sanskrit [MA, 1982]    
PRLJA – to singe PRLA (‘to clean’) [ARS, 103] Pashto  
PRKHAM – to flit, to flutter PYRKHA (‘to flit’) [ARS, 100] Pashto  
PT – time (when counting – one time, two times…) Identical to POT, PA [IJa, 233] Ishkashimi  
PKHAM – to stick, to shove PJC (‘to shove’) [ARS, 96] Pashto  
PCHA – to stick out; to swagger about PCHA (‘a movement from inside, a swelling’) [MGA, 160] Pashto  
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