The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: K - L - M

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
KAVAL – wooden flute KAVAL (‘a hook, a pipe, a sleeve’) [SH, 95] Eastern Caucasian turk. kaval
KAZAK – sledge (dial.) (in the districts of Stara Zagora, Nova Zagora) KAZAK (‘bent’) [DE, 126] Jazguljami turk. kIzak
KAJ – a colloquial particle, ("he/she says"). In expressions such as "Ima – kaj! Ela – kaj!" Identical to the Pamirian KE [GASK, 368] Wakhi  
KAKA – an older sister KAKIK (‘an older sister, an older woman’) – Ishkashimi, 

KAKA (‘an older sister’) [AG, 310]

Ishkashimi, Mundzhani
KALINA – one’s husband (unmarried younger) sister KELIT (the same) [LRS, 231] Lezgin  
KALUGER – a monk, a friar KAL (‘an oath’) + KAR, GAR (‘to make’) [IJa, 280] Ishkashimi greek kalogeros (kalos + gerwn)

KAL < `ar. qa:l(a) "he said" or qa:la(t) word, speech.

KALUSHAR – an old medicine-man KALU (‘old, big’) + the suffix ‘SHAR’, Pamirian Pamirian  
KAMATEN – able, capable (dial.) Compare to the Pamirian/Persian KIMAT (‘dignity, value’) [RPDS, 729] Pamirian the pamiri word is persian  qi:mat < `ar. qi:ma(t) "value" 
KANARA – a rock In the Pamirs the heights around the villages are called KANORA, literally ‘outskirts’ [GASK, 375, etc.]The reason is that the villages there are always situated in valleys with steep slopes. In Bulgaria the meaning changed to refer to ‘a rocky terrain, rocks’. Wakhi  
KANJA – to invite (guests); KANACH, KANATAR – a man who invites guests; KANADZHIJKA – a woman who invites quests, etc. KAN (‘to invite, to desire to see’), KANI (‘desired, beloved’) [LRS, 211] Lezgin  
KAPA – a hat ; a fur-cap K’APE (‘a fur cap’) [LRS, 201]  

KAF (‘to cut, to process’), KAFSI (‘leather’) [AG, 310]

Lezgin greek kap(p)a, late latin cappa
KAPISHTE – heathen shrine KAP (‘submission to God’) [LRS, 150]  

KAP (‘a big stone’) [DE, 131]

KARAKACHANI – nomad mountain shepherd (of Romanian origin) KARAKACHAN (‘a ward’, literally ‘somebody who is in other’s hands’) [ChRS, 238] Chechen  
KARAM – to drive; to urge KAR (‘to make, to do, to move’) [RPDS, 183] Pamirian  
KARAM SE – to scold, to quarrel with s.o. Compare to the Pamirian QAR (‘anger’) [Ija, 228] Ishkashimi  
KATANA – a big, stout man KATA (‘big, massive’) [IJa, 209] Ishkashimi turk. kadana (artillary horse) < hung. katona (a soldier) ? 

ott. spelling q(a)T(a)na, T may be read either t or d 

slang: a big stout woman (probably confused with kadIn -woman)

KATO – like, as KAT (‘as’) – Sogdian [SIJa, 231]    
KACAM – to alight, to land  KAC (KAS) (‘to incline, to tilt; to put something above’) [IJa, 209; GASK, 367] Ishkashimi Wakhi  
KACHAUNKA – crocus, saffron KACHKACH (‘a type of forest flower’) [GASK, 365]  

KACHAUKLIS (‘yellow’) [SH, 103]

Eastern Caucasian
KACHAMAK – hominy KACHA (‘food’, noun), KACHANIG (‘nutrient’) [ChRS, 238] Chechen turk. kac,amak "quickly made pudding of corn flour" 
kac,amak (to do something or something done quickly and 
KACHVAM SE – to go/come up; to climb KISHI (‘to go up’) [UM, 233]. KASH (‘a big saddle’) 

A closer analogy is the Pamirian KAC – see above.

Eastern Caucasian
KACHULKA – a hood, a cowl, dial. KACHUL KACHOL (‘a hood’) [DE, 141]  

KACURA (‘a hood’) [ARS, 400]

KACHULAT – hooded; crested. A derivative from KACHUL (see above). KACURA (‘a hood’) in Pashto [ARS, 400] Pashto
KEKERICA – a froggie KERKERIC (‘a clapper, a rattle’) [DE, 229] Jazguljami  
KENAR – a decoration at the end of clothes KENAR (‘an end’) [SIJa, 1980]   turk. kenar (edge) < pers. kena:r
KEPCHE – fisherman’s spoon KEPCH (‘ a big spoon’) [DE, 139; GASK, 336] Jazguljami turk. kepc,e < pers. kepc,e
KESHKI – a common folk exclamation, with a self-reproaching meaning. ("KESHKI da bjah napravil!" = "Why didn’t I do something!") Identical to the Pamirian exclamation KOSHKI [IJa, 210] Ishkashimi turk. ke$ki, ke$ke "would that" < pers. ka:$ki(h), ka:$ki: 
KIVOT – a coffin, an ark KEWOT (‘a falling, a collapse in the ground’) [ARS, 424] Pashto  
KILVAM SE – to tilt, to cant KL (‘tilted’) [IJa, 211] Ishkashimi  
KNIGA – a book. Attested since the X c. AD in the form of KNIGACHII (‘a bookman’) KKHN (‘to write’) [LRS, 171-172] + probably the Bulgar suffix –IGA. 

Or from KUNUKKU (‘a royal inscription’) – Accadian, and its derivative in Armenian KNIK (‘a seal’)

KOVLADJA – to slander, to report on KOVLADALA (‘to send in prison’) [ChRS, 255] Chechen  
KOZUNAK – an Easter cake KAZINAKI (‘a type of jam’) – Georgian 

KHOZ (‘sweet’, adj.) [RPDS, 64]

KOKAL – a bone (‘bone’ is also KOST (Slavic) in Bulgarian) KOK (‘hard’) [DE, 216; IJa, 229]  

The Bulgarian word has a suffix –AL added, in the same way as the Pamirian BUKH led to the Bulgarian BUKHAL.

Jazguljami, Ishkashimi  
KOKICHE – snowdrop (a flower) KUKIJ (‘a flower’), KUKUBAJ (‘a rose’) [ARS, 420], KUNGU (‘a croccus’) [ARS, 442]. The diminutive suffix –CHE means that KOKICHE meant ‘a small flower’ Pashto  
KOKICHKA – a pit, a stone (of fruit) (NB ‘a pit, a stone of fruit’ is also KOSTILKA in Bulgarian) Derived from KOK (‘hard’) (See KOKAL (‘a bone’, Bulgar)) + the diminutive suffix –ICHKA, so that is literally meant "a small hard thing". Formed following the same model as that for the Slavic KOSTILKA (‘a pit, a stone’) from KOST (‘a bone’, Slavic) + the diminutive suffix –ILKA. Pamirian  
KOKO – an egg (children’s word) KAKA, KHOKHLA, KU’K (‘an egg’) [SH, 42]  

KHAGAJ (‘an egg’) [RPDS, 763]

Eastern Caucasian
KOLACHE – a small round bread A common Pamirian word, compare to the Ishkashimi K’LCA [IJa, 211], etc. Ishkashimi ott. turk. ku"li^c,e < pers. kuli^c,e, (short form kulc,e) 
< hind. (steingass) 
( turk. ku"lc,e "a mass", "ingot").
KOLIBA – a hut; a shanty KULBE (‘a hut’) – Persian   turk. kulu"be (ottom. spelling qul(U)be < greek KALYBH (hut) pers. kulbe sami 

if it was from literary persian it would have been ku"lbe in turkish, and thus no spelling with q. 

greek KALYBH (hut) 

bulghar ? slavic (on account of the of the 
initial o) 

  turk. kulu"be (ottom. spelling qul(U)be 

pers. kulbe 

the slavic form is apparently early. NB o for a like many early renditions in slavic. 

the word makes sense for greek (i.e. is native).

KOMAT – a hunk, a chunk  QMOC (‘bread’) [IJa, 229]  

KOMAT (‘big’) [AG, 348]

Ishkashimi, Mundzhani
KONTOSH – an upper male and female garment in Western Bulgaria. The Eastern-Caucasian l-s provide the closest parallels: the Avar, Hvarshin, Bezhtin KUNTA (‘a type of upper garment’) [SH, 93]; the Andi KUANNO, KUANTO (the same) [SH, 93] Eastern Caucasian
KOPRINA – silk The attempt to derive it from KOPRIVA (‘nettle’), made in the Bulgarian etymological dictionary, is unconvincing.  Compare to the Sogdian PRING (‘a silk thread’) and KO (‘a worm’). 

Also to the Avestan HAUPARINGA (‘silk’). 

This as well as the other similar words referring to the silk production – BUBA (‘silkworm’), KREZH, PASHKUL (‘cocoon’), etc. in Bulgarian are all eastern in origin.

KOPRINCHE PILE – a silkworm (in the districts of Stara Zagora, etc.) Compare to the Pamirian PILA (‘a cocoon’) [RPDS, 295] Pamirian  
KOPUK – a stupid man, a fool KAPUK (‘to repeat as echo, to follow blindly somebody else’) [DE, 123] Jazguljami turk. kopuk (detached, disjointed) also metaphorically as in bulg.
KOPCHE – a button  KUBI (‘a button’) [AG, 348] Mundzhani turk. kopc,a "hook and eye" < hung ?
KOREM – an abdomen, a belly The closest analogy is the Mari word KOREM (‘a furrow, a hollow’)   turkic qarIn, chuvash xIra~m 
KORIJA – a grove, a copse belonging to the whole village Probably from the Pamirian KARIJA (‘belonging to the village, municipal’) [RPDS, 633] Pamirian turk. koru (ott. qoru, qorI) "a grove" 

pashto qariya (i.e. qarya) "village" < `ar. qarya(t) "village" 

the pamiri word is based on arabic:  qarya(t) (village)   + relative suffix iyya(t) {properly in arabic it would be qurawiyya(t), if not just qarya(t) "village" itself.

KOSSER – a sickle, a pruning-knife KOS (‘a big knife’) – Chuvash [ChUV, 1956] 

KEZ (‘a knife’) [GASK, 377]

turkic > bulghar 

turk. keser = adze, kes= to cut (an ottoman loanword in hungarian) 
keser litt. "something that cuts"

KOTIGA – a loose coat (archaic, obsolete)  From the Pamirian KOT (‘a coat’) [RPDS, 445] + the suffix –IGA as in words such as LEVENDIGA (‘a height, a hill’), KALBUZIGA (‘a jacket made of goat-skin’) [AG, GASK, etc.] Pamirian pashto ko^t. (retroflex t) < eng. coat
KOTURA – a kennel, a shelter for a dog Compare to the Pashto KOTURA (‘a type of big wooden vessel’) [ARS, 399]. 

Chechen KOTAR (‘a dwelling’) [ChRS, 305]

KOFTI – bad, badly (jargon)  KUOFT (‘ill’) [IJa, 210]  

GOF (‘fear’, noun) [GRS, 312]

Ishkashimi kofti (slang) "lie, trick" < greek kof (rotten or empty inside) < greek koufos (empty)
KOCH – a ram KOC (‘to copulate’) [IJa, 209]  

From this stem is probably also the Bulgarian word KOCKAR (‘a rip, a rake’)

Ishkashimi turk. koc, < turkic

turkic, qoc, , qoc,(u)*ng*ar "ram"

turk. (dial.) koc,kar "a strong ram for fighting" < turkic

KOCHINA – a pigsty GOCHI (‘a pigsty’) [TRS, 281] 

GODZHALA (‘a pigsty’) [ARS] 

Compare also to the Dardic KOCIL (‘a pigsty’)

KOSH (GRDEN KOSH) – a chest (anat. thorax) In the Eastern Caucasus similar words – KESH, CHOZH, denote the abdominal cavity [SH, 12] Eastern Caucasian
KOSH – a basket KESH, CHOZH (‘a receptacle’) [SH, 40] Eastern Caucasian  
KOSHARA – a (sheep)pen From KOSH, see above.    
KOSHER – a (bee)hive From KOSH, see above.    
KRAK – a leg KARA, KORA (‘a limb’) [SH, 42]  

Compare also to the Dardic KRA (‘a leg’) [DIE, 254]  

The closet analogy is the Tabasaran (East. Cauc.) KARK [SH. 36].

Eastern Caucasian
KRASA – a snake (dial.) KRES (‘to creep, to crawl’) [IJa, 210] Ishkashimi  
KRASTA – scabies; a vice, a passion GRAS (‘to scratch’) [GASK, 349] Wakhi  
KRACHA – to pace, to walk; KRACHKA – a step; RAZKRACH – a stride  Derivatives from KRAK, see above.    
KREZH – a waste from the production of silk KREZH (‘a waste, a rubbish’) [GASK, 370] Wakhi  
KUKA – a hook  KUKA (‘a hook’) [ChRS, LRS]  

Compare also to the Dardic KOKKJ (‘a hook’)

Chechen, Lezgin
KUKER – a mummer KUKER (‘a cry, noise’) [ARS, etc.]  

Probably the initial meaning of KUKER in Bulgarian was ‘noisy, crying people’.

KUKUMIJ – a metal cauldron. Attested in Bulgaria since the X c. AD. The earliest analogy is the Accadian KUKUBA (‘a cauldron’). 

KUNKUMA (‘a cauldron’) [SH, 85]

byz. greek kukumi < lat. cucuma (Nikos Sarantakos)
Eastern Caucasian
KUMA – a dialectal word meaning "walk, go!". In expressions such as "KUMA donesi voda!" ("KUMA bring water!"), "KUMA brzichko" ("KUMA quickly"), etc. Unclear word. In some places in the Pamirs KUMA means "little, few" [DE, 135-136], although it does not fit well. Closer is probably the Ishkashimi KUMAK (‘help, assistance’) [Ija, 211], hence KUMA could mean "Help me!". Pamirian
KUMIR – an idol The closest analogy is the Ossetian G’UMIR (‘an idol’) and the Accadian KUMIRTU (‘a priest’)    
KUNKA – a hand (children’s word) KUINU (‘a hand’) [SH, 42]

KU’G [ChRS, 233]

Eastern Caucasian  
KUTRE – a pup, puppy KUTRAJ (‘small dog’) [ARS, 398] Pashto  
KUTRE – the little finger Probably from KUTRAJ, see above.    
KUCHE – a dog KUCHUK (‘a dog’) – Tadzhik [RTS, 711]  

In the Katarkali language (in Hindu-Kush) KUCHUR is ‘a dog’, and KICHIR – ‘a bitch’. 

In the Eastern Caucasus the dogs are called KUCH and GUZHA.

Pamirian 1. turkic (prob. < IE) 

tu"rki ku"c,u"k ("puppy"), turk. kuc,u (quc,u - see below)  hung. kutya 

iranian - incl. avestan - normally has s- < IE *k- for this word, osett. has k- (possib. < archaic turkic). 
chinese also has *k- for dog. domestic dogs (ko"pek), small dogs (ku"c,u"k) seem to have k-, while It < it is more general (in turkish more vulgar, also "it su"ru"su" - dog pack, perhaps referring to wild or stray dogs) 

2. other IE lang.

Eastern Caucasian
KUCOVLASSI – the name of Romanian-speaking tribesmen in the Southern Balkans Probably from KUC (‘outer’) [ChRS, 233]. Thus KUCOVLASSI means ‘outer Vlakhs’ Chechen  
KUSHINA – a sheaf KUSHTA (‘a sheaf’) [SH, 71] Eastern Caucasian  
KKRJA – to simmer, to burble KAKRA [IJa, 228] Ishkashimi turk. ku"kre= to roar.
KRLEZH – a tick (parasite) KORE, KOREKAN (‘a spider, a bloodsucker’) [TRS, 127] Talish  
KRKAM – to gobble; to bubble; to swill, to booze Compare to the Pamirian stem KR (‘to rumble’) [ARS, 403]  

Also to KOR (‘to suck, to drink’), which led to words such as KRLEZH and KOREKAN

KRPA – a piece of cloth, towel; kerchief A common Pamirian word – Ishkashimi KRPA [IJa, 212], Sarikoli KRPA [SRS, 88], etc. Ishkashimi, Sarikoli  
KRTJA – to break off, to tear off KRD (‘to split, to cleave’), KRDA (‘to furrow’) [AG, 317] Mundzhani  
KS – a piece, a fragment KC (‘a piece’) [IJa, 213] Ishkashimi
possib. < turkic (as the distribution seems to be beyond bulgarian) 
turk. kIsa
KT – a nook, a corner  ‘a nook’ is KUT in Ishkashimi, Mundzhani, KT in Pashto and in Wakhi [GASK, 370; DE, 211] Ishakshimi, Mundzhani, Pashto
possib. < turkic (as the distribution seems to be beyond bulgarian) 

old turk. kIt (later kat) < turkic qIt, qat. (fold, corner, side, layer) 
wakhi kut (roof) seems to be different. pashto has ka:t, qa:t < turkic. 
mundzhani has ku:ta (room) also different.

KTAM – to put away/aside  GT (‘to put away’) [GASK, 350] Wakhi  
KSHTA – a house  KSHTAJ (‘a house’), GZHDAJ (‘a tent’) [ARS, RPDS, 743]  

KTZA (‘a house’) [GASK, 376] 

Compare also to the Dardic GHOSHT (‘a house’) [DIE, 270]

KJUTAM – to beat Compare to the Pashto KUTJL (‘to beat’) [ARS, 1970] and the Dardic KUTA (‘to beat’) [DIE, 249]
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
LAVRA – a monastery, a large temple LAWR (’large, great’, masculine), LAWRA (‘large’, feminine) [SRS, 94; ARS, 456]  

LAVRA obviously meant a ‘large church’

Sarikoli greek laura (i.e. lavra) (bulg. etym. dict.)
LALE – one’s husband’s younger brother (dial.) LALE (‘a younger brother’) [DE, 145] Jazguljami  
LALUGER – a hamster  LLALUKI (‘a bat’) [SH, 12] Eastern Caucasian  
LAMTJA – to crave LAAM (‘a strong desire’) [ChRS, 266] Chechen  
LAMJA – a dragon  LAMAT (‘bad, deformed’) [LRS, 221] Lezgin  
LASSO – a lasso LASSA, LOSSO (‘a long rope’) [AG, 319]  

It is know that the lasso was used by the Bulgars. In the VI c. AD three Byzantine generals were captured by the Bulgars by lassoes. That is why for the Bulgarian word LASSO there can be supposed an origin, independent from the French/Argentinean "lasso".

Mundzhani ? amer. english lasso < sp. lazo (perhaps through the british in the pamirs?) 

also east venet. le*sh*o, it. laccio ottom. turk. le$ (a naval term) 
  see tietze 

LASTUN – a stem (of a squash, etc.) LASTUNHAJ (‘a stretched part, a sleeve, branch’) [ARS, 451] Pashto  
LAF – a word; a talk LAW (the same) [DE, 147; etc.] Jazguljami turk. laf (palatal l) < persian la:f
LAFJA – to talk, to chat  See LAF    
LEVENT – well-built/strapping young man  LAWENT (‘a brave man’) [DE, 146]  

LAWAND (the same) [ARS, 461]

Jazguljami turk. levent, levend (well-built man < sailor < irregular soldier) < perisan levend ("jobless"); in the meaning of "sailor" confused with italian "levantino"
LELE! – Good heavens! Oh dear! (interjection) Identical to the Pamirian interjection LELE [DE, 146; etc.] Jazguljami  
LELJA – an aunt  LEELE (‘an address towards an older woman, or a nurse) – Persian 

LOLE (‘an aunt’) [DIE, 241]

LEKHA – a (flower)-bed, a ridge Compare to the Talish LEK (the same) [TRS, 131] which is the only parallel discovered up to now.
LESH – a carrion  LESH (‘a migration; a death’) [ARS, 464]  

Thus the initial meaning of LESH must have been ‘somebody who left this world, a deceased’ 

Pashto turk. le$ < pers. la:$e
LESHNIK – hazelnut  LESJ (‘forest berries’. Literally ‘a core’) [TRS, 131] Talish  
LESHTA – lentils  LESAK – a general name for the beans in the Pamirs, LISAK in Wakhi [GASK, 390] Wakhi  
LILJAK – a stork (in the district of Shumen, in Dobrudzha) LEJLJAK (‘a stork’) [SH, 41]. Also LEGLEG Eastern Caucasian turk. leylek < persian leklek, `ar. laqlaq
LICHA – to show, to appear; to be evident  LICH (‘to show, to appear’) [DIE, 243] Dardic  
LOBNO – in the expression "LOBNO MJASTO" – a place of execution/of someone’s death LOP (‘to fall, to perish’) [SRS, 95] Sarikoli  
LOZINKA – a password (dial.)  LOZIM (‘necessary, needed’) [RTS, 385; RPDS, 389] Pamirian romanian lozinca~ < german Losung

LOZIM < `ar. la:zim 

LOMOTJA – to babble, to gabble  LAMAT (‘bad, deformed’) [LRS, 221] Lezgin  
LOSH, LOSHAV – bad, ill, evil  LOSH (‘corrupt, degenerate’) [TRS, 135]  

LOSHA (‘ugly, lean, spare’) [IJa, 214; PRS, 320]

LUMKAM – to beat with force  LUM (‘to beat’) [IJa, 214] Ishkashimi  
LUNGUR – unfit horse. In the expression "Koncheto ti e lungur, ne iska da vrvi."  LUNG (‘lame, limping’) [SRS, 95] Sarikoli turk. "langIr lungur" (clumsy) NB pers. leng "lame"
LJOKH-LJOKH! – an exclamation in folk songs. Similar exclamation is found in the Eastern Caucasus, where it sounds as LUKH-LUKH, LJUK-LJUK [LRS, 226] Lezgin  
LJOKHMAN – a crack-brained man, a moony. Variants: LJOKHNAT (crazy, moony), ZALJOAKHAN Probably from the Pamirian LUK (‘ a joke, a fable’) and thus LUKMAN (‘a joker, a jester’) 

The correspondent Eastern Caucasian stem LJUK [LRS, 226] is even closer to the Bulgarian words.

Pamirian turk. lokman (pr. name) < `ar. luqma:n (pr. name) 

a legendary qur'anic figure who is depicted as a sage and teller of fables and stories. luk seems 
to be based on false etymology.

LKH – a breath, a whiff; smell LJ (‘a warm whiff, fume’) [AG, 321] Mundzhani  
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
MAGARE – a donkey MAJ KHARA (‘a female donkey’) from KHARA (‘donkey’) [RPDS, 418]  

The ending –E in MAGARE is the same as in other Bulgarians words of old Bulgar origin – KUCHE, GALE, KUTRE, INDRISHE, MAZARE.

MADZHUN – a treacle, molasses From the Pamirian/Persian MAZH (‘a honey’) + the Pamirian suffix –UN. 

MARZON, MAZON (‘sweet’, adj.) [ChRS, 288]

Pamirian turk. macun "paste" < `ar. ma`cu:n "paste"
MAZARE – peas (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) MATSAR (‘peas’) [MGA, 830]  

MASH (‘peas’) in the other Pamirian l-s [SRS, 246; etc.]

MAKAR – at least; although; even so Identical to MAGAR [ARS, 484] Pashto  
MALE – an address to one’s own mother MHALI (‘mother!’) [DIE, 292] Dardic  
MANKIRA – to cheat, to shirk MANKIR (‘denying’) [AG, 329] Mundzhani french manquer (bulg. etym. dict.)

MANKIR < turk. mu"nkir "person who denies, aetheist" < `ar. munkir
mundzhani has MNKIR

MAMALIGA – hominy  MLGHIGA (‘a mess, a gruel’) [AG, 328] Mundzhani romanian ma~ma~liga~   (corn flour dish) < latin (NB it. meliga) turk. mamaliga, NB turk. mama (chow)
MARTAK – a partner in a game of cards (dial.) Connected probably to the Pashto MARTAK (‘a sign’) [MGS, 816], interpreted as ‘a man with whom one exchanges signs, bids’. Pashto the basic meaning seems to be a support 

turk. mertek "support, beam" < armen. martog 

pashto m@r.t.ak (retroflex r, t) means "plan".

MASSA – a table MAC (‘a broad wooden board’) [LRS, 232] Lezgin romanian masa~ < latin me:nsa NB sp. mesa turk. masa
MASSUR – a curl (of hair) MANSUR (‘a winding, a lap’) [LRS, 220] Lezgin  
MATI-MASKARA – in the expression "Napravih go MATI-MASKARA" ("I made him MATI-MASKARA") From the Pashto MATI (‘a defeat, a debacle’) [RPDS, 643; ARS, 466], and MASKARA (‘a ruin’) [AG, 324]. MATI-MASKARA meant ‘defeated ruins’, or, otherwise – ‘pitiful remains’ Pamirian turk. maskara "bufoon" < `ar. masxara(t) (nativized loan) 

pers. MAT < `ar. ma:t(a) "he died"

MACAM – to stain; to daub Compare to MAZU (‘an ink nut’) [MGA, 821] Pashto  
MEGDAN – a square Identical to the Persian/Pamirian MAJDAN [ARS, 493] Pashto turk. meydan < 'ar. mayda:n 
MERA – a common pasture/land MERA (‘a field, a pasture’) [MGA, 821] Pashto  
MESSAL – a table-cloth  Compare to MES (‘bedspread’) [LRS, 236] and 

MESSALA (‘fluffy, soft’) [ChRS, 297]  

The relation between MES and the Bulgarian word is the same as that between BUKH, KOK and BUKHAL, KOKAL

Lezgin, Chechen
MEKHANA – a tavern From the Persian MEI-HANA (‘drinking place’) [PRS, II]   turk. meyhane (ott. spell. meyxa^ne) < perisan mey xa:ne
MESHINA – a sheepskin  MESH (‘a sheep’), MESHIN (‘sheep’, adj.) [RPDS, 402; ARS, 418] Pashto turk. me$in < persian me$i:n
MECHKA – a bear MJSHE (‘a bear’) in Adig [ASh, 272-273]  

Compare also to the Mari MASKA (‘a bear’) [RMS, 312]

MIACI – a name of a part of the Macedonian Bulgarians Probably from the Pamirian MAASH, MIASH (‘a maintenance, costs, means of livelihood’). It is know that the Kuber Bulgars (VII c. AD) who settled in Macedonia were given the right by the Byzantine emperors to be provided for by the neighbouring Slavs. Pamirian MAASH < `ar. ma`a:$, so this particular etymology is non-sequitur. 

so is MIASH, which might be (if not another version of "maash")  pashto miya:*sh*tani: "monthly salary" from miya:*sh*t "month". I doubt very much if there was a monthly pay system. 

MIGAR? – Really? Indeed? Identical to MEGAR [ChRS, 295] and 

MEGEM [TRS, 304]

Chechen turk. meger (same usage) < persian...
MIGLA – an eyelash MIZA (‘an eyelash’) [GASK, 384] Wakhi  
MIZHA – to urinate (dial.) In expressions such as "Konjat mizha." (Western Bulgaria) MIZEM (‘to urinate’) [AG, 325]  

MIZG (‘urine’) [GASK, 386]

Mundzhani, Wakhi
MILINA – milk pastry; MLIN – pasty/pastry MILIA (‘to gather’), MILIA (‘to meet guests’) [ARS, 495] Pashto  
MINGUSHKI – a hens’ wattle MENGUSH (‘earrings’) [PRS, II]  

MING (‘earrings’) [ChRS, 301]

MINZUKHAR - crocus Probably in connection with its yellow colour – MEZAN (‘yellow’) in Vejnakh, MEKRTAME in Georgian.    
MLJASKAM – to smack, to munch Compare to the Sanskrit MLEKKHA (‘emitting barbarous sounds’) [MA, 237]    
MOKANI – an old name of the Romanians (in Dobrudzha) From MUKA (‘a neighbour’) [LRS, 241] from which MUKAN (‘neighbouring’). 

Or from MOKHAN (‘an idler, a loafer’) [ChRS, 308]

Lezgin, Chechen  
MOMA – a girl, a maid MOMO (‘elderly woman’) [RTS, 27; AG, 326; etc.]  

Thus MOMA probably initially meant ‘a grown-up girl’.

MOMK – young man, lad  Probably from MOMAZH: MO (‘big’) + MAZH (‘man’) [AGK, 94]  Dardic  
MOTOVILA – in the expression "VILA-MOTOVILA" (VILA = ‘wood-nymph, elf’). MATAVIL (‘to kill, to destroy’) [ARS, 465] Pashto  
MRAZJA – to hate BRAZI (‘to hate’) in Georgian [TG, 291]  

MERCA (‘a hatred’) [MGA, 821]

MUDNO – slowly, at slow pace MUNDO (‘tired, slow’) [AG, 326; RPDS, 712; etc.] Mundzhani  
MUNTI – worse (jargon)
Compare semantically to the Pamirian MUNDO (‘tired, slow, ruined’) (see above)
MURA – white fir MURKH (‘a pine’) [SH, 54]  

MURG (‘mountains ash, sycamore’) [ChRS, 309]

Eastern Caucasian  
MURGAV – swarthy, dark MURI (‘smoky’) in Georgian [TG, 403]  

MURKI (‘brown, rusty’) [EB, 82]

Eastern Caucasian
MUSTAK – a moustache  MSTK (‘moustache’) [GASK, 399] Wakhi  
MUSJA SE – to scowl, to lour BUC (‘to be angry’) [ARS, 78] Pashto  
MUKHI – Bulgarian apicultural name of the bees. 


At first glance, it seems to be same as the Slavic (Bulgarian as well) word MUKHA (‘a fly’), but in Persian, in the Pamirian l-s the bees are called MUSH. And the same word is also found in the lands of the former Volga Bulgars, where the Mari MUKSH means ‘bees’ [RMS, 620]. Probably this name for the bees was connected with an old Bulgar bee-keeping tradition with origins in the Persian, Pamirian regions.
MUCUNA – a muzzle  MUCAR (‘a muzzle’) [ChRS, 309]  

Compare also to the Dravidian MUNDZHI (‘a muzzle’) [TAM, 508]

MUSHIJA – landowner’s estate MUSHA (‘a worker’), MUSHAKI (‘an owner, proprietor’), MUSHATI (‘a work) in Georgian [TG, 403]    
MUSHKAM – to poke  MUSHKA (‘to nudge in the ribs’) [ChRS, 310] Chechen  
MZH – a man MZH, MAZH, MONZH (‘a man’) [DIE, 33-270] Dardic  
MJ-MJ! – a common Romanian folk exclamation. From the Pashto MKHJ (‘a wedding’) [ARS, 473]. Also see MNNKA below.
MNNKA – Please! (dial.) (Also used in Romanian) From the Pashto verb MANL (‘to please, to approve’), leading to MANLAJ (‘dear, honoured’), MANNA (‘an approval’), etc.  Pashto  
MRVACI – the name of a part of the Macedonian Bulgarians MARVACH (‘strong, brave’) [MGA, 817] Pashto  
MRLA – a slut, a slattern  MRKHLAJ (‘an careless, negligent man’) [ARS, 477] Pashto  
MRSJA – to dirty, to soil MURS (‘to get dirty’) [LRS, 245] Lezgin  
MRCINA – in the expression "umrja mrcina" ("[He] died mrcina") MRCAPAN (‘a perished man, a man who died a violent death’) [MGA, 816] fits exactly to the meaning of the Bulgarian expression Pashto  
MRKHULJA – to squeeze something, to loither around something (dial.) MRKHULAJ (‘a bustling, hesitating man’) [MGA, 816] Pashto  
MJUEDZHE – a reward for a good news. (In folk tales) Identical to the Wakhi MEZDA [GASK, 394] Wakhi turk. mu"jde (good news! congratulations!) < pers. mujde
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