The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: G - D - E

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
GAVANKA (GAVANA) – a wooden bowl Compare to the Persian GAWAM (‘a form, a moulded vessel’) and the Mundzhani GWIJA [AG, 305] 

Also with the Chechen GEVENK (‘a wooden bowl’) [ChRS]

Mundzhani ital. gavagno (< late lat. * cavaneus < lat. cavus) 
     > turk. kavanoz (dial. gavana) 
     > romanian ga~van , ga~vanos 

 thus  ital. or late lat. > greek > slavic, turkish, romanian.

GAVRA – a mockery, a gibe Compare to the Persian and Pamirian GAWR (‘a pagan, godless man’) [AG, 299], from which comes GAWRA (‘godlessness, blasphemy’) Mundzhani greek gauros, gaurw

ga:vur is a vulgar persification of `ar. ka:fir (infidel) found in turkish as well.

GAGO –one’s sister’s husband (in the district of Botevgrad) KAKO (‘uncle’) [RPDS, 207] 

Compare also to the Eastern Caucasian GAGA (‘uncle’) 

Eastern Caucasian
GADZHAL – a dialectal name for the Turks. In the Caucasus the Turks had been called since long ago GAZALO, MOGUL and SOMAL (in Georgia, Dagestan), and TACHIK (in Armenia)   gypsy ga*dj*o "foreigner" 
GAZHD – dirty (dial.) GAZHD (‘dirty’) – in Pashto, Jazguljami, Sarikoli, etc. [SRS, 68; GASK, 351] Pashto, Jazguljami, Sarikoli  
GAZJA – to wade; to trample GAZAR (‘a ford’) [GASK, 351] Wakhi  
GAJDA – a bagpipe Compare to the Sanskrit GAI (‘to sing’) from which is the Pamirian GAJDA (‘a song, a harmony’)   turk. gayda < spanish gaita < germanic ?
GALATSKI – filthy, poisonous (dial.). In the expression "ne pijte khora taz voda – taz voda j voda galatska". GALAT (‘filthy, bad’) [RPDS, 442] 

Also the Eastern Caucasian GALAT with the same meaning

Pamirian turk. galat "mistake" < ar. g~alaT 

the modern words are all loans from arabic, even though the word might ultimatley have iranian origins.

Eastern Caucasian
GALE – a buffalo-calf (dial.) Compare to the Eastern Caucasian KKAL [LRS, 21-23] and the Persian KAL – ‘buffalo-calf’. The ending –E is same as in the old Bulgar words KUCHE (‘a dog’) and VZHE (‘a rope’) Lezgin
GAF – a blunder, a break GAF (‘a confusion, a jumble’) [ARS] Pashto french gaffe turk. gaf
GACAM – to play (for children) GACH (‘to outwit’) [GASK, 347] Wakhi  
GASHTI – drawers, pants GJACHO (‘a trouser leg’) [SH, 95] Eastern Caucasian  
GASHTNIK – a bad-mannered man, a boor GASH (‘a quarrel, a row’) 

GASH (‘to smack, to eat in an ill-mannered way’) [GASK, 351]

GEGA – a shepherd’s crook (with a hook a the end) GJAKA, GEKA (‘a hook’) [LRS, 97] Lezgin prob. turk gaga (apparently dial. gege) "beak" < ? `ar. qa`qa`  ("to crow" non-literary loan) 

also an alternative romanian etymology.

GENGERLICI – a waste/barren land; wilds. In the expression ‘Kde hodish iz gengerlicite?!’ (Dobrudzha). Compare to the Eastern Caucasian GENG (‘broad, wide’), from which – GENGER (‘expanses, space’) [LRS, 85], and also GENER (‘yards, squares’) Lezgin turkic root ge*ng*= wide, breadth. 
GERDE – a round cloth decoration , made of a woollen braid with strung up coins (Western Bulgaria) Compare to the common Pamirian stem GERD (‘round, bent’) [IJa, 201; AG, 301] 

Also GERDAJ (GERDE) (‘a round object’) in Pashto.

Ishkashimi, Mundzhani turk. girde "round object", "an obligatory decoration for jews" 
(ott. ) < pers. girde

or turk. gerdan < pers. gerden

GERDEL – a type of a large container, vessel (in the district of Sliven) Compare to GERDE above.   turk. gerdel (bucket) < greek kardari (bowl), lat. caldaria (cauldron) mod. greek gerdeli (bucket) `ar. gardal (egypt), cardal 


GERENIDA – a forest grass, which is collected in the spring and is eaten fresh (Strandzha) GEREMIN (GHERAYMIN) (‘earthen, growing on the earth’) [AG, 305] Mundzhani  
GERKA – earthenware (in the district of Samokov) GHERAI (‘clay’, noun) [AG, 305] Mundzhani  
GIZHA – a vine-twig, a vine-plant GJZO (‘a bud, a budded plant’) [SRS, 71] 

GIZD (‘to grow, to blossom’) [GASK, 347]

Sarikoli, Wakhi
GIZDJA SE – to adorn o.s., to trick o.s. out Compare to GIZD (‘to blossom’) and GJZO (‘a bud’) above. It shows that initially GIZDJA SE meant ‘to adorn with flowers’.    
GIZDAV – bonny, pretty See GIZDJA SE above.    
GIZMODUL – a scent, a perfume (in the district of Primorsko) Most probably the initial meaning was ‘a coloured fluid’, ‘a fluid with a smell of flowers’ – From the Pamirian MOD (‘fluid’) [SRS, 103] and the stem GIZ (see above). Sarikoli  
GIRZHA – to level, to make flat (in the Khaskovo district) Compare to the Pamirian GIRZH (‘a weight; ramming; a device for levelling the ground’) Pamirian  
GLECH – a glaze, a varnish GLEC (‘a glaze, a gilt’) [ARS] Pashto  
GLOBA – a fine, a penalty Compare to the Middle Persian GLOB (‘a pledge, a pawn’) [SIJa, 70] and the Georgian GLOBA (‘a levy’) [TG, 66]
GOVEDO – an animal, a brute; a cattle GOW, GAU (‘a cow’) [RPDS, 304; TRS, 286] 

GOVET (‘a herd of cows’)

GOLOPAR – in the expression "gol-golopar" ("completely naked") (in the districts of Razlog, Dedeagach) Unexplained up to now. From the Pamirian stem PAR (‘the thick parts of the legs, bottom’) in the Sarikoli PARIT, Mundzhani PRA [SRS; AG, 341] 
Therefore, the expression "gol-golopar" literally means "with naked bottom".
Sarikoli, Mundzhani
GOPTAL – a fist (in the district of Gorno Orjahovo) Unexplained. Derived most probably from the Sanscrit GUPT (‘to fight’)
GREZDEJ – a bung, a peg The only close analogy is the Pamirian GAREZN (‘stopper, plug’) [SRS, 64] Sarikoli
GRCMUL – Adam’s apple From the Pamirian GRC (‘a throat’) [DE, 101] + MUL, MUN (‘a lump; an apple’). The second word is similar to the Sanskrit MULA (‘a lump, a knot’).  Jazguljami

GUGU; GURK, KHURK; GURGURAJ in the Eastern Caucasus [SH, 15]

Eastern Caucasian
GUDJA – to put, to shove GUT (‘to shove, to sink’) [GASK, 352] Wakhi prob. turk. gu"t= to drive, to shove (i.e. animals), to pasture 
GUZEN – a coot (dial.) GUZ (‘a river meadow’), GUZIN (‘a lake, a swamp’) [SRS, 65] Sarikoli  
GUZEN – guilty, shame-faced. In the expression ‘Guzen negonen bjaga’. The stem GUZ hints that the initial meaning of GUZEN must have been ‘sunk man, man with dirty feet’. The closet analogy, however, is the Adig GUZHEEN (‘confused, embarrassed’) [ASh, 116] Pamirian
GURVO – the outlet of a spring (in the district of Lovech) GHURWO (‘a throat, an opening’) [AG, 305] Mundzhani  
GUREL – a rheum GURA (‘filth, pus’) [GASK, 353] and the Eastern Caucasian GURA with the same meaning [LRS, 95] Wakhi
GURIDA – unripe grapes (in the district of Khaskovo) GURA (‘unripe grapes’) [AG, 304] Mundzhani  
GUTER – a hamster From the Pamirian stem GUT (‘to shove’) Pamirian  
GUCA – a swine (dial.), GUCE – a piglet Compare to the Pashto GUCKAJ (‘an animal’) and the Georgian GOCI (‘a pig, a hog’) Pashto
GUSHA – a neck GUSH (‘a neck’) [DE, 107] 

Also the Persian GOZHAR

GDEL – a tickle GELGECH (‘to tickle’) [GASK, 349] 

GDGLE (‘ a tickle’) [TRS, 320]

Wakhi turk. gIdIkla= (gIdIk + la with denominal suffix) to tickle. 
GTNA – to tumble down; to drop down dead GATKUN (‘to collect fruits from a tree’) [LRS, 83] Lezgin  
GJUBRE – dung, manure (Western Bulgaria) GIMRE (‘sheep’s dung’) [LRS, 87] Lezgin turk. gu"bre (manure) < greek kopria (nikos sarantakos)
GJA! GJA! – a driving call to horses Compare to the Eastern Caucasian GJAJ! (‘a driving call to horses’) [LRS, 97] Lezgin  
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
DADA, DEDA – an older sister (in the districts of Veles, Breznik, etc.) Compare to the Talish DODO (‘a sister’) and the Georgian DA (‘a sister’) and DEDA (‘ a mother’) Talish
DAMA – draughts (a game) Compare to the Persian and Eastern Caucasian TAMA, and the Talish DAMKA [TRS, 319] Eastern Caucasian turk. dama < it. dame, french damme
DAMLE – horse races at Todorovden  Compare to the Pamirian/Persian DAM (‘a game, an entertainment’), and the Talish verb DAME (‘to come, to arrive’) 

In Talish as in modern Bulgarian the suffix –LE is diminutive, Therefore DAMLE meant "little entertainment".

Pamirian persian DAM < french damme (i.e. non sequitur) 

interestingly dobrev didn't mention perisan da:m = "livestock"

DEBNA – to stalk, to lie in wait TEBNA (‘to stalk’) [ChRS, 396] 

Compare also to the Sanskrit DABHNOTI (‘to harm, to deceive’)

DENK – a bundle, a pack Compare to the Pamirian DJNG (‘large, thick’) [ARS, 262] Pashto turk. denk (anat. a pack on the side of an animal) < pers. deng (a pack) < turkic te*ng*, *de*ng* (even, in equilibrium) < ? old chinese (this rejected by clauson) 

$. sami (lists the meaning "equilibrium" as metaphorical) the neoligism in turk. is based on the old turkic usage.

DZHAMAL – a type of folk game Compare to the Pamirian DZHAMALDAR (‘a leader’) Pamirian bulg. sources (bulgarian etym. dict.) say this is from a turk. colloquial "camal" (litt. cemel) < `ar. camal "camel". cemeldar < cemel "camel" + "owner" (possibly caravan leader) 
DZHAMACHE – unclear word. In the expression ‘Bjagaj, sestro koshuto, trima ljude dzhamache ni gonjat! Sha ni stignat da ni utepat!" (in the district of Chepino) ("Run, my sister doe, three men dzhamache are after us! They will reach us and will kill us!") Compare to the Pamirian DZHAM (‘a task, a king’s order’) [GASK, 319] and thus ZHAMACH would mean ‘somebody sent by order, a chaser’. Closer, however, is JAMAK (‘a bow-string’) [GASK, 360], thus DZHAMACHE probably meant ‘archers’. Wakhi  
DZHANGOLOZ – a forest ghost DZHANGAL (‘a forest’) [ARS, 179, 211] Pashto cengel (somewhat litterary) forest < persian cengel 
DZHANTA – a wheel rim Compare to the Pashto DZHANTA [ARS, MGA]. Also to the Dardic DZHANAL (‘a frame, a supporter’) Pashto turk. jant (dial. cant) < french jante
DZHAPAM – to wade, to splash DZHAPAN (‘to drift’) [RPDS, 387] Pamirian  
DZHARAN – a keg for churning milk (Dobroslavci, Sofia district) DZHJR (‘curds’) [TRS, 255] Talish  
DZHASKAM – to throw DZHAZ-AVJL (‘to throw’) [ARS, 175] Pashto  
DZHVORNEM – to hit (Western Bulgaria) Close to the Pamirian DZHJG (‘a core, a bone’) [ARS, 255] Pashto  
DZHEGALKA – a shuttle of a loom
Compare to the Talish DZHGLE (‘a part of an instrument, piece’) [TRS, 255], also to the Talish DZAVANE (‘an addition’)
The Mundzhani CWANA (‘a type of pitchfork’)
DZHEZVE – a coffee-pot The oldest analogy is the Abazin word DZHJZVGA (‘a mug, a cup’) [RAS, 204] Eastern Caucasian turk. cevze, in ottoman sometimes spelled ce*dh*ve, < `ar. ca*dhwa(t) "ember"
DZHELJU – a folk tradition when women walk in the fields DZAL (‘walking’) [ARS, 173] Pashto  
DZHIDZH – a type of shepherd’s bucket DZHIDZH (‘to churn milk’) [ARS, 270] Pashto  
DZHIDZHEN – beautiful  DZHIDZHE (‘beautiful’) [DIE, 229] Dardic turk. cici (good, child's lang.) < ? (b. etym. dict.) 
DZHODZHEN – mint, pennyroyal DZHDZHN in Ossetian    
DZHONKA – a beak DZHONA (‘a beak’) [ARS, 1970, MGA], also found in the Eastern Caucasus Pashto
Eastern Caucasian
DZHOP – a big stick (in the district of Stara Zagora, etc.) In expressions such as "Udari mu edin dzhop!" From the Pamirian CHOB (‘a club, a cudgel’) [RPDS, 444] Pamirian turk. cop (< chop) "cudgle", in common with persian
DZHUGA – a ring around cart’s axle Unclear word according to the Bulgarian etymological dictionary [BER, I]. However, in the Pamirs it has direct parallels – DZHUG (‘tie, coupling; yoke’) [AG, GASK, ARS, MGA, IJa, etc.] Pamirian
DZHUDZHE – a dwarf Compare to the Eastern Caucasian DZHUDZHA (‘a small bird’) and the Pamirian CHUCHA (‘small’) in the expression CHUCHA SAG (‘small dog’) Eastern Caucasian
DZHUKA – a mouth (vulgar) Close to DZHUKA (‘something bent, a bend’) [ARS, 1970] Pashto  
DZHURA – a bagpipe Compare to the Pamirian JUR (‘to tune a musical instrument’) [GASK, 364]  Pamirian This exists in Greek as a loanword (Nikos Sarantakos). 

turk. cura (a small wind or string instrument) < pers. curre (a musical instrument; of medium height etc.)

DZHAVANA – pruning-shears DZAJVJNA (‘to shove, to put inside’) [ARS, 213] Pashto  
DZVAR – to bring down DZVAR (‘bad’) [ARS, 211] Pashto  
DZIFT – a pitch, bitumen DZHUFT (‘a thick substance’) [LRS, 123] Lezgin turk. zift < `ar. zift
DOBA – time  DOJA, DAJA (‘time’) [RPDS, 389; GASK, 334; etc.] Pashto, Wakhi  
DOJKA – a wet-nurse The Bulgarian etymological dictionary [BER] correctly connected it with DOJA (‘to suckle; to milk’), without providing, however, any direct parallels from other l-s. The only group of peoples who have a similar word is the Pamirian, where it sounds as DO*J*A, DA*J*A [RPDS, 389; GASK, 334, etc.] Pamirian  
DOSTA – enough; much DOKKKHA (‘much’) [ChRS, 78-81] Chechen  
DRAS – a big, tall man. In the expression "goljam dras" (Dobrudzha and elsewhere). DRAZ (‘long’) [RPDS, 191] Pamirian  
DREKHA – garment, article of clothing DRESH (‘clothes’) [ARS, MGS, etc.] Pashto  
DRUSAM – to shake; to bump DRUSK (‘crude, rough’) [AG, 293] Mundzhani  
DRMBOJ – a type of musical folk instrument  TEREM (‘shepherd’s horn’) [GASK, 480] Wakhi  
DRPNA – to pull, to draw out  DRPN (‘to tear, to detach’) [GASK, 335] Wakhi  
DUDULA – a butterfly DUDU (‘a butterfly’, literally ‘a small birdie’) [LRS, 114] Lezgin  
DVCHA – to chew, to munch The closest analogy would be from the Ishakshimi stem DW (‘to repeat’) Ishkashimi  
DRT – old, broken down with age man DERT (‘broken down, ruined’) [TRS, 79] Talish  
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
ENE – here is, there, this, etc. (dial.) (in the districts of Samokov, Trn, Prilep, etc.) YANI (‘here is, there’) [IJa, 251], YEN (‘this, so much’) [AG, 388] 

ANE (‘here is, there’) [TRS, 274]

Ishkashimi, Mundzhani
ERCHA SE Compare to the Eastern Caucasian ERCHI (‘to stand up’) [EB, 81] Eastern Caucasian  
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