The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: C - CH - SH

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
CANJA – to hire CKHANA (‘to work together’) [ChRS, 482] Chechen  
CAP – a stick for threshing wheat CPAR [GASK, 326] Wakhi  
CEPJA – to split; to cleave TCIPI (‘to split, to cut’) [GASK]  

CEW (‘to split’) [SRS, 34]

Wakhi, Sarikoli
CER – (cerris) oak CERJ (‘oak-tree’) [RPDS, 205] Pamirian  
CERJA – to heal From CJAR, see below.    
CIBA! – "shoo! off!", an address to dogs (also CHIBA!) Identical to the Pamirian CHIB, CHIKH [GASK, 327] Wakhi  
CIGULKA – a violin Compare to the Pashto and the Eastern Caucasian names of stringed instruments CHUNGUR, CHUNGULI. Also to the Ossetian CIGU-MIGU (‘playing music’). Pashto
Eastern Caucasian
CINCARI – Macedonian Aromanians, semi-nomadic shepherds. CINZHIJ (‘a sheep’) [ChRS, 486]  

Thus CINCARI meant literally ‘shepherds’.

COCLA – a fat woman  CHOCH (‘fat, obese’) [ChRS, 504] Chechen  
CUJKA – brandy (dial.) CHJ (‘spirits’) [SH] Eastern Caucasian  
CUKALO – a night-pot CUGA (‘a pot’) [ARS, GASK, 361] Pashto, Wakhi  
CUKNI SI! – Have a drink! (dial.) SUK (‘to drink, to suck’) – Pamirian Pamirian  
CRVULI – leather sandals CJRMJN (‘leather’, adj.) [ARS, AG, 397] Pashto, Mundzhani  
CJAR – a cure CAR (‘a cure’) – Pamirian 

CHARA (‘a cure’) – Eastern Caucasian

Pamirian turk. c,a^re < pers. c,a:re
Eastern Caucasian
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
CHAVKA – (jack)daw CHAF – Pamirian [DE, 137]  

CHAG – Eastern Caucasian

Eastern Caucasian
CHAMAV – ill (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) CHAMGA (‘an illness’) [ChRS]  

CHAM (‘a confusion, a diversion’) [LRS, 365]



CHANA – aunt, grandmother; a respected elderly woman (in the district of Stara Zagora). CHONA (‘an elderly, respected woman’) [ARS] Pashto  
CHANTA – a bag  CHAMTA (‘a suitcase’) [ChRS]  

CHANTA (‘a leather bag’) [LRS, 366-367]  

CHAMTA (‘a leather bag’) [TRS, 244]  

Close also to the Persian CHAMDAN (‘a suitcase’), from which is the Russian CHEMODAN (‘a suitcase’)

Chechen, Lezgin turk. c,anta < pers.
CHAPA – a small hoe CHAP (‘a harrow’) – Talish 

CHAG (‘a cutting tool’) [DE, 137]

Talish turk. c,apa "hoe" also "anchor" < It. zappa "hoe, later palm of an anchor" 


CHARDA – a heard of cattle CHARDA (‘to lead to pasture, to pasture’) [TRS, 244] Talish  
CHEVERME – a barbecue CHWERK (‘a general name for the lambs and the kids’) [GASK, 325] Wakhi turk. c,evirme ("to turn",thus whole meat on the spit, as opposed to do"ner, similar but refering to packed meat)
CHEMBAS – a plait of boy’s hair which was left to grow (in the district of Perushtica, etc.) CHEMBO (the same) – Pamirian 

CAMBE (‘a plait, a sheaf’) [TRS, 243] 

CHEMBER – beams, joists CHAMBAR (‘a beam’) [RPDS, 482] Pamirian turk. c,ember (hoop, metalstrip around something) < pers. c,ember  (see below)
CHEMERIKA – (white/false) hellebore CHEMERUK (‘ a general name of plants resembling onion’) [LRS, 378] Lezgin  
CHEPKA – a bunch, a cluster CHEPK (‘grapes’) – Pamirian 

CIPICI (‘a bunch’) – Eastern Caucasian [EB, 35]

CHERVO – an intestine, a gut CHERW (‘an abdominal cavity’) [GASK, 313] Wakhi  ?
chuvash s'u"rme (sausage filled with chopped intestines)
qypchaq co"rme 
ka$gari yo"rgemec, (yo"r=, "to wrap", yo"rge= "to wrap up")
mong. cu"rme "stuffing"

also in caucasus and in ossetian.

CHILIK (CHELIK) – cat (children game), tip-cat The oldest analogy is the Sanscrit CHILIKKA [MA, 1980]. In the language Kati in the Hindu Kush the same game is called KILIK [AGK, 251]
CHIMSHIR – a box(-tree), a boxshrub The only analogy is the Talish CHIMSHOR (the same) [TRS, 307] Talish turk. c,im$ir, $im$ir < pers. $im$a:d 
CHINA – the wife of o.’s father’s brother, aunt (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) SHINA (‘an aunt’) [IJa] Ishkashimi  
CHIP – lightly curved, snub(-nosed) See CHIPAK.    
CHIPAK – the upper part of a dress CHPAK (‘a round form’) [GASK, 326] Wakhi  
CHITAV – healthy, unhurt, preserved CHIT (‘to guard, to keep’), CHIDAM (‘preserved’) – Eastern Caucasian Eastern Caucasian  
CHISHKAM – to urinate CHISH (‘urine’) [IJa, 191] Ishkashimi turk. c,i$ (< old oghuz) "urine" (informal)
CHOVKA – a bill; a beak Identical to the Pashto CHOKA, CHONGA [ARS]  

Also to the Eastern Caucasian ZOK

Eastern Caucasian
CHOVRKAM– to pick; to scratch COF (‘to pick’) [SRS, 35] Sarikoli  
CHOMPE Identical to the Ossetian CHOMPA (‘bent’, adj.) [VA, 1960]    
CHOP – a lot  CHUB (‘a pin, a peg’) – Pamirian. 

Thus CHOP was named after the common way of tossing – by drawing a pin. 

Compare also to the Persian CHUBE (‘a stick’)

Pamirian turk. c,o"p (anat. "small stick") 
old turkic has c,Ip for stick, c,o":p for "dregs" (mod. turkish c,o"p "garbage") 
persian has c,u:b, c,u:be "stick"
CHOPLJA – to pick (at), to poke CHOP (‘a wound, a scratch’) [GASK]  

Compare also to COF, see above.

Wakhi turk. co"ple= 
turk. co"p (dial. "small stick") + le (denominal verbal suffix) 
also turk. copla=, older c,opla= ("to cudgle") 
cop < c,op ("stick, cudgle") also pers, c,u:b 

"copla=" is used frequently in the description of demonstartions etc. 
as cop is now used as a policeman's cudgle.

CHORLAV – dishevelled  Compare to the Dravidian CHURUL (‘a curl, a ringlet’) [TAM, 468]    
CHORCHUK – in the expression "Na CHORCHUK" ("in a croocked, twisted way") Compare to the Eastern Caucasian CHJR, CHUK (‘curved, twisted’) [EB, 81] Eastern Caucasian  
CHUVAM – to rear, to breastfeed (dial.) CUF (‘to suckle’) [AG, 264] Mundzhani  
CHUK – a hammer CHOK, CHUKICH (‘a hammer’) [IJa] 

CHUK (‘a hammer’) – Eastern Caucasian.

Ishkashimi ? turk. c,ekic, ; pers. c,eku:c, , c,eku:c , c,eku$ "based on turkish" acc. to steingass. 
turk. NB c,ak= to strike, to pound in.
Eastern Caucasian
CHUKA – a rocky peak CUKA (‘a peak’) in Pashto [RPDS, 95] 

CUK (‘raised, protruding’) [DE, 325]

Pamirian, Jazguljami
CHUKAM – to knock  A derivative from CHUK, see above. 

CUK (‘to knock’) [GASK, 325]

CHUKAN – the hub of a vine CHUKVANI (‘a hub of a vine’), CIPICI (‘a bunch of grapes’) [EB, 64] Eastern Caucasian  
CHUKAR – a (rocky) peak A variant of CHUKA, see above.    
CHUMBER – an old-time Bulgarian folk headcloth CHEMBER (‘a thin cloth for kerchiefs’) [ARS, MGA] Pashto turk. c,ember "hoop" < pers. c,ember (spelt c,enber) "hoop", kerchief 
c,ember yemeni kerchief for tying round the head (in support of a 
headdress), thus short c,ember"
CHUPJA – to break SHOP (‘to break’) [GASK, 467, 469] Wakhi  
CHUKHAL – a type of awl CHUKH (‘a type of awl’) [GASK, 362] + -AL, as in 
BUKH – BUKHAL (‘awl’), KOK – KOKAL (‘bone’).
CHUCHNA – to sit down CHUCHCHA (‘to gather together’) [ChRS] Chechen  
CHUCHUR – a spout CHUKHCHAR (‘a jet, a waterfall’) [ChRS, 502; ARS, 175] Chechen
CHUSH – a driving call for donkeys CHUK, CHUSH – Pamirian Pamirian turk. c,u"$ to stop a donkey. 
CHUSHKA – a pepper CHUSHKA (‘a hollow tubule’) [ARS, MGA] Pashto  
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
SHAR – a paint. SHARCHII (X c. AD) – a painter. The oldest analogy is the Sumerian SAR (‘to draw’) 

SHIR (‘a paint’), SHIRCHI (‘a dyer’) [LRS]

> tu"rku"t (?) sIr ("lacquer" - ka$gari) < middle chinese *ts`i@t (> ch`i)

it is attributed to the tu"rku"t on the grounds of the phonetics of chinese. it appears that a middle chinese dialect in contact with tu"rku"t had -r < -t. there are some other examples in tu"rku"t to support this.

in bulgarian it would be a bulghar word acquired from common turkic before the migration to the danube.

uyghur sIrc,I (later "painter", with turkic suffix). 
qazan tatar sIr "paint", chuvash sa~r (< tatar?)
NB oghur palatization $ < s + palatal 

SHARKA – a drawing A derivative from SHAR, see above.    
SHARKA – measles, varicella  SHARAJ (‘varicella’) in Pashto [ARS, MGA]  

SHARAJ (‘varicella’) in Mari, Chuvash

SHARJA – to variegate, to dapple A derivative from SHAR, see above.    
SHAJAK – homespun, frieze SHAJ in Mundzhani, SHOJ in Pashto. Pashto  
SHEVAR – a marsh plant CHEBAR – a type of … (plant) [DE, 273] Jazguljami  
SHEPA – a hollow (of the hands), cupped hands CHIB (‘a span’) [EB, 60] Eastern Caucasian  
SHETAM, SHTAM – to do the housework; to be active SHTKA (‘to work’) [GASK, 506] Wakhi  
SHIBALKA – a lash SHIB (‘a lash’) [TRS, 273] Talish  
SHIBAM – to lash, to slash See SHIBALKA.    
SHILE – (weaned) lamb The oldest analogy is the Sumerian SILA (‘a lamb’) 

SHILA (‘a young of an animal’) – Kabardin 

CHILAJ (‘a kid’) – Pamirian

this is a genuine -r turkic word with the shift of l < l2 (common turkic $, and the characyteristic $ < s + palatization (and it seems s or c, (/ch/ < *t + palatal). anatolain turkish on the other hand has $i$ek with the same meaning.

comm. turkic ti$ek "2 year old sheep"  - ka$gari, from ti$ tooth, ti$e= to get or loose teeth, (i.e. to loose milk teeth)  > comm. turkic $i$ek

mong. $ilegu" < old mong. silegu" 

(serb. s^il'ek, albanian shilek) (rona-tas, clauson)
turk. $i$ek

Eastern Caucasian
SHINA – a wedge (dial.) SHINO (‘a wedge’) [SRS, 161] Sarikoli  
SHINDRENA KSHTA – (SHINDRENA HOUSE). A special type of house with large trimmer joists (in the district of Teteven) 


From the Pashto epithet SHIGDR (‘a tower’) [ARS, 350], indicating that this type of houses got its name after its high roof. Pashto  
SHIPKA – a thin lath SHIPK (‘a flexible twig’) [GASK, 464]  

SHIB (‘a lash’) [TRS, 273]

SHIRA – a must, grapes’ juice SIRA (‘grapes’ juice’) [IJa, 236] Ishkashimi turk. $Ira < pers. $i:re
SHMEKER – a cheat, a dodger Compare to the Persian SHMAK (‘a demon’) [SIJa, 189]    
SHOL – soft meat SLK (‘soft’) [DE]  

SHOL (‘meat’) in Mari [RMS, 550-590]

SHOLJO – a younger brother (dial.) SHULI (‘small’) [DIE, 274] Dardic  
SHOPAR – a hog, a boar SHUPARA (‘fat’) [RAS, 504] Eastern Caucasian  
SHUBE – uneasiness  SHUBKHE (‘a doubt, a suspicion’) [TRS, 263] Talish turk. $u"phe ("doubt"), $u"bhe < `ar. $ubha
SHUGAV – mangy  SHUGA (‘mangy’) [ARS] Pashto  
SHUDRAV – pretty, big SHIDUR (‘more beautiful’) [IJa, DE, 330] Ishkashimi, Jazguljami  
SHUMA – foliage, leaves SHUMA (‘leaves’) [ARS, 348; SH, 35-70] Pashto
Eastern Caucasian
SHULE – ass’s foal Compare to the Dardic SHULI, see above. Dardic  
SHUNDA – cut lips SHUNDA (‘cut lips, hare-lip’) [ARS, 348] Pashto  
SHUT – hummel. hornless SHUT (‘hornless’) [ARS, 1970] Pashto  
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