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The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar
 

Words, preserved in the historical and archaeological monuments from the VI-X cc. AD:
 
 
Old Bulgar word Closest analogies Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
     
ALEM (first) – the name of the first month Alein – frontal, first (Talish)  
ALTEM (last, back) – the name of the twelfth month Alt – back, lower (Celtic)  
ALKHASI KUPE (an armament, most probably – a siege tower) Alkhasi – a siege engine (Georgian) alkha is probably from `ar. Halqa(t) with a semitic H.
AN (or EN) – in two inscriptions from Murfatlar An, en – a heaven (Sumerian) 

Inish – God (Eastern Caucasian)

 
AS (an ash, mortal remains) in the expression ZENTY ASO E As – an ash (Kati, Pashto) 

Ase (Sogdian)

 
AULI – the Greek name of the palace of Krum Auli – a building with a high wall (Pamirian)  < turkic ag~ul, ag~Il (an enclosure, sheep or cattle pen, later village) 

hung. o'l (cattle pen), chuvash yal

BAGAIN – a military commander Bakhoin – a military man (Eastern Caucasian)  
BAGATUR – a heavily armed horseman Bakhadur (North Indian) 

Bagatur (Georgian)

turko-mongol < asiatic hunnic (clauson) > pers. baha:dur  > ott. turk.
BAN – a military deputy of a region Ban – a military commander (Eastern Caucasian), from BO – an army  
BELEG - a sign Belek – a sign, a mark (Georgian), 

Belyeg (Hungarian)

turkic belgu", mong. belge. "sign, mark" *bel signifies "to be 
manifest" 
bil= "to know" chuvash palla~
BIRI-BAGAIN – a commander of lightly armed horsemen from Bir – a cavalry band (Pamirian)  
BISER – precious beads for a necklace Bisjer – a multityde, many small things (Tadzhik) biser seems to be of arabic origin, meaning "bead" or "false pearl". Some qychaq languages seem to have it (in arabic it more commonly means unripe date(s) - busra(t), busr). I attribute it to either pecheneg turkic or the meditaranean trade.
BO KOLABR – an army priest Kolobr – a priest and Bo – an army (Eastern Caucasian)  
BOILA – a noble, a lord Bo’la – a master (Vejnakh) 

Boul (Persian)

 
BORU – a stronghold, a town Boru – a stronghold (Pamirian, Persian)  
VER – the year of the Dragon Berka – a big snake (Eastern Caucasian) 

Waran – a gigantic lizard, Warendak – long, snake-like [SRS, 186]

Vaireni – a dragon (Prakrit), Vaira – dangerous, Varuna – the god-protector of the water, "The Encompasser of the World" 

Dobrev also had the Dardic Peren (dragon), Proto-indian (?) Peran (large, long), the Chuvash Verem (long), the Sumero-Accadian Ur, Jurnu (dragon), the wide spread of this and other calendar terms of the nominalia pointing to the ancient chartacter of the cyclic calendar.

veren < turkic evren "dragon", "firmament (i.e. sky, stars etc.), (also "oven") from evir= to turn around apparently ewren/evren was latter found as a volgabulghar name. 

either e/v reversal or evren > *o":ren > veren (o": > ve - found 
in -r turkic. 

iranian has avesta a*zh*i dahaka in a well known legend (later a half-serpent king, zohak, dahak in kurdish) for "dragon". new persian ejder, ejdeha (j=/zh/)

VECHEM – the fifth month in the calendar Wjuch – five (Dardic) 

Wjuchem – fifth

 
VESH – a month, a part of the year in the expression ELMA VESH Wesh – a part, a share (Pamirian) 

Vez (Va’z) – moon (Eastern Caucasian)

 
VIKHTUN – to remove, to throw out (in the Nominalia) Bikht – ‘thrown away’ in Al-Biruni’s "India"  
GILS –a burial pot in the expression OKHSI TZIT MA GILS Gilos – a burial pot (Pamirian)  
DVAN – the year of the Hare Dvand – fleet-footed (Pamirian)  
DZHUDZHE – small, tiny Dzhudzhe – a small animal, a birdie, a chick (Eastern Caucasian)  
DILOM – the year of the Snake Tilok – a big worm (Pamirian) archaic turkic *dIlan  > comm. turkic yIlan 
DOKHS – the year of the wild boar Tokhs – bad, fierce (Persian)  
EALKH – in the expression OKHSI YOVOK EALKH Jalkho – a servant, a slave (Eastern Caucasian)  
EVROPII MIZIJSK - ‘rulers of Moesia’ in Saint Kliment’s life Euri – a master (Urartian)  
EPI – in the expression EPI ITIP BILO Eb, emp – a wolf (Eastern Caicasian)  
ESTEK – eighteen, in the expression ESTEK KRNI I REZHET Astais – eighteen (Dardic) 

Histdan – eighteen (Pamirian)

 
ESTROGIN KUPE – a type of armour, most probably a mail armour Jestrika – knitted (Pamirian)  
ETKH – the year of the Dog Jettu – a pack of dogs (Eastern Caucasian) 

Jjta – a dog (Chuvash)

 
EFE – an isolated word on the walls of the churches in Murfatlar Efe – to excuse (Pamirian)  
EN – a heaven See AN  
ZOAPAN – a court title Zhoopan – an official (Eastern Caucasian) 

Chupan (Sogdian) from fsu-pana (Sanskrit)

 
ZDCHII – a builder, an architect Zig – to rise, Zid – high (Sumerian), 

Sida (Urartian)

 
ZERA – in the expressions ANZI ZERA, ZERA TARKANOS Dzra – a supervisor (Pamirian) 

Zera – a courier (Pamirian)

 
ITZI – in the expression ANZI ZERA ITZI AZO E Ish – fair (Eastern Caucasian) 

Is – a world, God (Sanskrit)

 
ITZIGI – holy See ITZI  
ICHIRGU BAGAIN – a commander of the archer or of the palace guard Ichirkho – an archer, a sentry (Eastern Caucasian) 

Isara – an arrow (Sanskrit)

 
ICHURGU BOILA – the title of the commander of the garrison in the capital See ICHURGU  
KAVKHAN – the second most senior title in Bulgaria Kavkha – a chief of a town (Eastern Caucasian)  
KAZNACHII – a treasurer Khazna – a treasure (Persian, Pamirian)
KALU TARKAN – one of the participants in the wedding ceremony of Car Peter Kalu – a type of priests (Accadian) 

Kal – an oath (Pamirian) 

Kalum – to swear (Pamirian)

 
CAMPSIS – the title of one of the Bulgarian representatives on the VIII. Ecumenical council – in the expression ZISUNAS CAPMSIS The original word must have been KABSI 

Kabshi – an advisor (Georgian)

 
KANA – the most senior Bulgar title. In expressions such as KANA SUBIGI, KANA BOILA KOLOBR, etc. Kana – a chieftain (Eastern Caucasian) 

Kana – major, big (Pamirian)

 
KANASUBIGI, KANESUBIGI – the official title of the Bulgar khans; from KANA (leader) and SUBIGI (divine) Similar to KANIZAUCI – the highest Avar title  
KANARTIKIN – the title of the heir to the throne Tikin – a heir (Eastern Caucasian) + 

Kanar – ‘of the Kana’

 
KAPISHTE – a pagan Bulgar temple Kap – a prayer (Eastern Caucasian) 

Kapisha – a priest (Accadian)

turkic ki:b - mould, model, later image, idol. ( -p ?) 
chuvash pek < *kep, hung ke'p 
yakut kieb , mong. keb
KNIN – a title at the time of Car Simeon, mentioned together with MAGOTIN and IMNIK No correspondences found  
KRMCHII – a steersman Krm – to guide (Talish)  
KOLOBR – a priest Kolobkhar – a cleric (Persian) 

Kulbr (Pamirian)

 
KORABCHII – a word translated in Greek as NAUTOS – sailor From the Greek Korabos (ship) with the Bulgar suffix -CHII  
KRAVCHII – a servant in the court, who cut and served the roasted meat Kravi – to cut meat (Sanskrit) 

Craf – to cut meat (Celtic)

 
KRCHII, KRCHII – a mine-digger Kherrch – a furnace (Eastern Caucasian)  
KSISTON – a type of fish in Kubrat Bulgaria (in Southern Russia and the Caucasus) Sischiani – a type of bream (Georgian)  
KUVENTOS – the Bulgar people’s assembly ("The Bulgars gathered for a kuvent", in Theophanes) Coveth – to gather (Celtic)  
KUKUMIJ – a big metal vessel Kukuba – a cauldron (Accadian) 

Gumguma – a cauldron (Persian) 

Kumkum – a cauldron (Eastern Caucasian)

byz. greek kukumi < lat. cucuma (nikos sarantakos) 
KUMIR – an idol Kumirtu – holy (Accadian) 

Gumiri – an idol (Alanian)

 
KJUBE (written KUPE in Greek) – the general name for the metal armour  Kupa – metal (noun) (Sanskrit) 

Kuba – an armour (Eastern Caucasian) 

Kubachi – the master of armour (Eastern Caucasian)

 
KNIGACHII – a bookman See KNIGA  
KNIGA – a book Kunukku – a royal inscription (Accadian) 

Knik – a seal (Armenian)

turkic * ku"ynig < chinese k`u"en "roll" 
hung. ko"nyv < oghur * ku"niv. 
mordiv. ko*ny*ov < old chuvash * ka*ny*Iv 
chuvash ke~neke < russian 
old uyghur ku"in, ku"in bitig  (bitig "book" < chinese also) 

+ turkic c,i

IMAET – a trustee, in the expression ZHUPAN I IMAET GEORGE Imaet – a trustee, a guardian (Pamirian) imaet (pamirian) sounds like `ar. 'ama:na(t) (putting into trust) 

if so, the old bulgarian word must be something else.

IMENSHEGOR – a stallion. The other name for the year of the Horse Imne – a horse (Mari) 

Imikhu – a donkey (Eastern Caucasian)

 
IMNIK – the senior overseer in the palace stables Derived from IMEN (horse)  
LUR – a part of the dressing of Car Simeon, mentioned by John Exarch Lor – a knitted decoration, a necklace (Pamirian)  
MAGOTIN – a title at the time of Car Simeon Moguti – a title in the former Kubrat Bulgaria  
MIR – a court title, in the expression ZITKOI MIR from the Madara fortress Mir – a master, a ruler (Pamirian) 

Mikhr – a noble (Persian)

mi:r is short for `ar. 'ami:r (an amir, commander, prince). This was noticed by menges, byzantion vol. 28, p. 447-448. According to him, it is not a title at all, but the last' syllable of a slavic proper name. I don't know about persian "mikhr" (not in any persian or middle persian dictionary of mine), but I find it unlikely that *kh* would drop out.
MURZULI – a type of fish, mentioned together with KSISTON by Theophanes (IX c. AD) Murca – a barbel (Georgian) 

Murculi – of barbel (Georgian)

 
OLKH – a word from a grave inscription Ol – to leave in peace (Pamirian)  
OLGU TARKAN – a court title Olka – a district (Georgian)  
PECHAT – a seal Bechedi – a seal (Georgian)  
PILE ZOPAN – in the expression TORTUNA PILE ZOPAN Pile – senior (Talish)  
SAMCHII – a title, translated in Greek as ‘MEIZOTEPOS’ – an authorized person, an intermediary Samadzh – communication, association (Sanskrit) 

Samo – a truce-envoy (Pamiro-Dardic) 

Sabchi – a messenger (Georgian)

 
SAMPSIS – a part of the title of one of the Bulgarian representatives at the VIII. Ecumenical council Probably the same as SAMCHII  
SARAKT – a name of a border area at the time of Krum Sarkhad – a border (Pamirian) 

Sarak – a guarded road

 
SOKACHII – a word, translated in Greek as MAGEIROS – cook Szacacs – a cook (Hungarian)  
SOMOR – the year of the Mouse (or the Rat) Smor – a sable (Parthian) 

Shupor – a flying mouse, a bat (Pamirian, Talish)

 
SUKMAN – a Bulgarian woman’s dress (low-cut sleeveless dress) Sukban – a dress, a gown (Eastern Caucasian) 

Cokman – a dressing gown (Pamirian)

 
TAGROGI – a word from Nagy Saint Miklos’ treasure, referring to the fraternization of two zhupans Tagarog – a reapproachment; becoming related by marriage (Persian)  
TAGGRAN – a word, which most probably referred to God Tangra. It would represen tthe only mentioning of Tangra in Bulgar inscriptions. Tanra – holy (Assyrian) 

Tandra – a thunder (Pamirian) 

Dingir – God (Sumerian)

 
TARKAN – a judge, a supervisor Similar to the Alanian Tarkan (Ash takran) 

Tark – to judge (Sanskrit)

 
TEKU (TAG) – the year of the Horse Teky – a donkey (Caucasian) 

Tajku – a foal (Pamirian)

 
TVIREM – the fourth month in the calendar Tuirea – four (Sanskrit) 

Cfir, Twir – four (Pamirian)

 
TES – a golden basin, a bowl, in the expression ‘BOILA ZOAPAN TEZI’ Tesh – a basin, a bowl (Pamirian) 

T’sh – a basin, a bowl (Talish, Persian) 

Compare also to Tesh – gold (Eastern Caucasian)

 
TORTUNA – a guard of a ford Tortu – a ford (Pamirian)  
TOKH – the year of the Cock Tukh – a hen (Pamirian) 

Tokh – a hen (Ugric)

hung. tyu'k < og~uric *tIvuq < turkic taq:ag~u, taquq etc. 
(chuvash studies)
TUBA – ‘a vow’ or ‘a holy gift’. In the expression "Tongan iz polou tuba obasa" Tuba – a vow, a pledge (Pamirian, Eastern Caucasian) 

Or from Tuva – a gift (See below)

I would discard tuba. `ar. tawba(t) - vow (of regret)
TUVIN – in the Omurtag's expression "And the tuvin is famous, fine." Tuva – a gift (Talish, Eastern Caucasian) 

TUVIN probably means ‘given as gift’

if tuva is taken to be from "pashto" tuhfa - gift - this etymology is impossible since tuhfa is a later day loan from arabic tuHfa(t) "gift", with a /H/ i.e. /h./ pharyngeal unvoiced fricative which is not native to pashto and is generally afro-asiatic. see aslanov pashto-russian p. 218 (2nd col. - "podarok")  for confirmation.
TURNESI – ‘golden coins’ in one three-lingual passage, containing the Greek, the Slav and the Bulgar name of the golden coins Turanshi – yellow, golden (Persian) probably turan*dj*i:, turun*dj*i 

turun*dj*, turan*dj* means "an orange", turun*dj*i:, turan*dj*i: means "orange colored". the closest i found was a metaphorical name for the sun by steingass as turun*dj*i: zer (zar = gold, golden). asside from the fact that the -i: sufifx was i:k in middle persian, somehow I find this explanation as giving "too colloquial" a name for the coin.

TUTOM – the second month of the year Tutam – second (Persian) 

Dutom – second (Pamiro-Dardic)

 
KHLOBRIN – a type of armament. It was available in only one copy in the Preslav inscription. Khulbure – a protective cover (Pamirian)  
KHONSA – a thief. A word explained as being a Bulgar one in codex ‘Suidas’ (X c. AD), when speaking about the laws introduced by Krum. Khonsa – a vicious person (Persian) 

Khonc – a plunder (Eastern Caucasian)

can't find the persian word. the closest in new persian (in the 
dictionary used by dobrev) is xu:n serd litt. "cold-blooded" 

in other places xu:nsa:z "murderer" - from xu:n = blood.

KHUMSHI KJUBE – a type of armour, most probably made of a single piece of metal Hunzu – moulded, cast in metal piece (Accadian)  
CHIGOT – a swordsman Chiko – a big knife (Pamirian)  
CHITEM – the third month of the year Citiya – three (Sanskrit)  
CHVAN – cast iron The only analog is the Dari Chawan  
CHVANCHII – an iron-smith From CHAVAN with the suffix -CHII  
SHAR – a paint, a dye Shir – a paint (Eastern Caucasian) 

Sar – to paint (Sumerian)

> tu"rku"t (?) sIr ("lacquer" - ka$gari) < middle chinese *ts`i@t (> ch`i) 

it is attributed to the tu"rku"t on the grounds of the phonetics of chinese. it appears that a middle chinese dialect in contact with tu"rku"t had -r < -t. there are some other examples in tu"rku"t to support this. 

in bulgarian it would be a bulghar word acquired from common turkic before the migration to the danube. 

uyghur sIrc,I (later "painter", with turkic suffix). 
qazan tatar sIr "paint", chuvash sa~r (< tatar?) 
NB oghur palatization $ < s + palatal 

SHARCHII – a painter Shirchi – a painter (Eastern Caucasian)  
SHEGOR – the year of the Bull (Ox) Sheg – a bull (Pamirian), 

Ceg (Eastern Caucasian) 

Shegor – a deer-bull (zekhre)

turkic sIg~Ir "cattle," large quadruped. 
SHEKHTEM – the sixth month Shekh – six (Pamirian, Dardic)  
SHILE – a (weaned) lamb Sila – a lamb (Sumerian) 

Shile – the child of an animal (Kabarda dialects)

 

Words from the language of the Volga Bulgars:
 
 
Volga Bulgar word  Closest analogies Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
AVUS – bee's wax. The information is of Makhum Kashgari, 1065 AD. Auz (wax) (Ossetian)  it is also found in qychaq balauz (honey wax, i.e. bee's wax) and auz. 
Clauson connects it with russian vosk (wax - now that I think of it probably cognate?). thus it is loanword in turkic and confined to the northwest.
BELUVIK – a monument Bel’wik – to know, to remember (Pamirian) belu"wik, belu":k 
later belu"yi, belwi, belu"wi (with possesive suffix -i)
DALAT – the name of the valuable pelts, with which the Volga Bulgars paid their taxes. Dalat – a leather (Eastern Caucasian) 

Dala – a valuable pelt of marten or sable (Pamirian)

 
KALANSUV – high caps (hats), exported by the Volga Bulgars. Kalon – high (Pamirian) + 

Shuv – a cap (Talish)

KALI – a woman, a wife 

the reference seems to be: 

Language and history : contributions to comparative Altaistics  /Andrºas Rºona-Tas. Published: Szeged : Universitas Szegediensis de Attila Jºozsef Nominata, 1986.

Kali – a woman, a wife (Georgian) I haven't been able to obtain a copy of the rona-tas reference that dobrev gives, but a study of the inscriptions gives kiye:l (with alif hence written like kiya:l ) probably representing ke.l or ke.:l (e. closed e, in c. turkic the vowel is short) for "wife". with the possesive suffix it would become ke.li, this  seems to be a short form of kelin (turkish gelin), ke.lin, "bride" (properly "daughter in law") from the verb kel-, ke.l- , gel- "to come" (i.e. into the family). in chuvash it has been shortened to "kin" ( < * kil + en). 

I don't know about the georgian word. turkic has qarI "old " (for a 
person or animal, in oghuz (old turkish etc.) used for "old woman", thus in turkish "wife". 

KHADANK – a type of tree Khadank – a poplar, 

Khada – a lime-tree (Pamirian)

fadlan xa*dh*ank, xa*dh*ang 

turkic acc. to doerfer and rona-tas, chuvash studies p. 163) rona-tas argues on geography. 

kashgari: qa*dh*I*ng* > oghuz qa:yI*ng* > chuvash xura~n > xadIn (tuva), xazIn (xakas), xatIn (yakut) i.e. all regular sound changes. 

fadlan x- may be a development within volgabulghar.

KHALANZH – a tree with a valuable wood Khalandzh – a type of oak, 

Khalandza – a chestnut-tree (Pamirian)

 
KHALDZHA – the lakes near the summer palace of the king of the Volga Bulgars Almus in 921 AD. Khalidzh – an inlet, a pool, a lake in some Pamirian languages xali:*dj* is found in arabic (gulf, thus inlet). if that is the word, then xal*dj*a must come from somewhere else.

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