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The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar
Characteristic features of the Bulgar grammar

   The most characteristic features of the Bulgar grammar were:

1.  Definitive articles at the end of the nouns:
            -A, -O, -OT, -ON, -ET for words of masculine gender;
            -VA, -SA, -NA, -TA for words of feminine gender (See the Geographic section for more details).

2. Words of masculine gender ending in -A: BOILA, KANA, ZERA, etc.

3. Suffixes -SI, -SKHI (-SHI) and -IN for the formation of possessive adjectives (ALHASI, KHUMSKHI, ESTROGIN, etc.).

4. Suffix -CHII for the formation of nouns denoting a trade (SHARCHII, KNIHACHII, ZDCHII, etc.).

5. Formation of plural forms by -AR (CHAKARAR, BOILAR, etc.).

6. Formation of possessive forms by the suffixes -I, -GI and -IGI (ZENTI, OKHSI, SUBIGI, TAGROGI, ITZIGI, etc.).

7. Oblique case being formed by the ending -I (TES TESI in the inscription from Nagy Saint Miklos, Hungary).

8. Characteristic suffixes -EM and -AM in the ordinal numerals (ALEM first, TUTOM second, etc.).

9. Diminutive suffixes -UKH, -IK, -CHU (-CHO), -CHE, -CA for the personal names (Asparukh, Valukh, Irnik, Manchu, Khanchu, Trajche, Ganica, etc.).

10. Formation of composite determinate constructions in which every preceding word determines the next one (KANA BOILA KOLOBR the khan's great kolobr [priest], etc.).

11. A characteristic conjugation of the auxiliary verb TO BE 'E' for third person, singular, present tense, and 'BE' for third person, singular, past tense.

12. A characteristic word order in which the predicate was placed at the end of the sentence (ZENTI ASO E, ANZI ZERA ITZI ASO E, etc.)

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