Links to external pages about the Proto-Bulgarians, Central Asia, etc.:


'Tempora Incognita of the early Bulgarian history" by Atanas Stamatov:
        The Bulgars in Pannonia, Illiricum, Italy in the IV-VII cc. AD
        The Bulgars in Armenia - a key to the earliest Bulgarian history

Hidden Treasures of a Forgotten Bulgarian State by M. Siderov (Bulgars, Avars in Illiricum, VI c. AD)

"TanNakRa" Bulgarian foundation

An alternative "astronomical" reading of the Pliska rosette by M. Siderov and E. Kelevedzhiev

The Proto-Bulgarian 12-year cyclic calendar (Chavdar Jordanov's page) (needs IExplorer)

Bulgarians - roots, connections, place in the world by V. Stefanova

The Madara horseman rock relief by M. Stancheva
             +  A better picture of the relief from World Monuments Watch

Bulgarian ruins    Bulgarian castles  (Grigor's page)

"Ziezi ex quo Vulgares"  by E. Zhivkov (in Bulgarian)

Moldavian archaeological project at the Rujno fortress, NE Bulgaria (in Russian)

Middle Volga:

"Aspects of the ethnogenesis of the Volga Bulgars" by Marsel' Bulgari (text in Russian)

Bulgarian National Congress, Tatarstan - political programme, picture archive, history (site in Russian)

Historical Memory of the Tatar Ethnic Group by F. Ziyatdinova (

"Tatars" - history of the ethnos and the ethnicon by R. Urazmanova (in Russian)

Tatars and Tatarstan - methodological and theoretical aspects by R. Hakim (45-pages .rtf-file)

Ethnogenesis of the Chuvash, Tatar people by V. Shnirel'man (

Chuvash - ethnic history and traditional culture  by V. Ivanov et al. (in Russian) (

Chuvashia - Folk Costumes, in Russian (

About the ethnic name "Burdjan" in Arabic geographical works

Dr. Vil Mirzayanov's site

Volga Bulgaria - at the Archeological Museum of the Kazan University (in Russian)
The museum-reserve at Biljar - Faience bowl - Kuphic coins
Alfred Halikov (1929-1994)

A web-site about Biljar (in Russian)

The ruins of Bolgary on Volga - The ruins of Tashkirmen by G. Frolov (in Russian)

The archaeological reserve at Bulgar - The archaeological reserve at Biljar at (in Russian)

Pilgrimage to Bulgar by Sh. Dzhamilov (in Russian)

The plate of Diggiz by A. Mukhamadiev (in Russian) (
(about finds of Sassanian- and Indo-Scythian style silver plates, "runic" inscriptions, etc. from the Middle Volga region, interpretted by the author as proper "Turanian". A table of a "Turanic" alphabet of the II c. BC - VII c. AD, readings.)

From "Bulgharism" through "Marrism" to Nationalist Myths: Discourses on the Tatar, the Chuvash and the Bashkir Ethnogenesis by Uyama Tomohiko (in English, .pdf-file)

Volga Bulgar archaeology of the region of Simbir (in Russian)
Description, pictures from Arbuzinskoe, Alekseevskoe, Golovkinskoe, Kremenkinskoe, Karsunskoe, Kokrjatskoe, Jurmanskoe sites, Kuphic dirchams

Medieval East-European coin with Runic inscription by Vl. Belyaev (in Russian/English)


KARACHAY BALKAR - the history of the Karachay-Balkarian people, their music, photo gallery, by Adilhan Adiloglu


    by Vincenzo D'Amico, 1942 (in Italian and Bulgarian)

'Comune di Borgaro Torinese'

Samnium, Archeologia del Molise - Alzeco, duca dei Bulgari

'Alcekova Bylgaria', The Bulgars in Italy - a collection of links of Ziezi to Italian sites

The Kutriguri

Kevin Brook's
(a comprehensive site about the early medieval Khazars and their empire in the Caspian-Caucasus-Pontus, etc.)

Edgar's Historychannel
(essays and articles about the Mountain (Caucasian) Jews, E. Rabaev's "History of the Jewish communities of the Northern Caucasus", etc.)

"The Red Kaganate" - an association of reenactors with links to "steppe" web sites , discussion forums, etc.

Fir Bolg - collection of links of Ziezi to Irish sites

Russia, Ukraine:

The Jases and Brodniks in the Steppes of Eastern Europe (IX-XIII cc.)
(an "Iranian" view on the medieval Alano-Bulgaro-Khazar culture of SE Europe)

Crimea in the Early Middle Ages (Huns, Alans, Bulgars, Khazars),
Map of Bulgar-Khazar and Christian sites in Crimea, VIII-IX cc. AD - from the Crimea History site (in Russian)

History of Phanagoria, "the capital of Great Bulgaria in the VII c." - from (in Russian)
Phanagoria - Golden finds, Decorated pottery of various time periods

Server of East-European Archaeology at
- Early Khazars in the North Pontus by A. Komar - discussion on Pereshchepina, Voznesenka
- Arms and science of war of the Khazar Khaganate by A. Komar and O. Suhobokov

"Scythica-Celtica" at (V. Eremenko) - Early Iron Age in Europe, large collection of links

The Pontic kingdom, V c. BC - IV c. AD by Dmitriy (in Russian)
History and coins of the north Pontus, essays

Library of Medieval Textsat (in Russian)

on Medieval Bulgaria:

Mediaeval Bulgarian Literature: The Turnovo Inscription of Khan Omourtag, The Life of St. Cyrillus, The Life of St. Methoduis, works of Climent Ochridski, Naum Ochridski, Konstantin Preslavski, etc. [Text in Bulgarian, notes in English]

    Stephan Nikolov, Oxford:

Medieval Sourcebook:

Central Asia:

Pendzhikent, Sogdian art  (T. Cheng's page)

The possessions of Magian, Phalgar (Palhar), Macha on the Zeravshan river by V. Sazonov (in Russian)

Newly found Bactrian documents by Prof. N. Sims-Williams

Tokharistan and Gandhara under Western Turk rule (650-750) by J. Harmatta and B.A. Litvinsky
      Chapter 16 of Vol. III of UNESCO's "History of Civilizations in Central Asia"

Review of V. Nikonorov's "The Armies of Bactria 700BC- 450AD"

Aspects of the ethnic history of ancient Central Asia by I. Pjankov (in Russian)

The celestial horses of ancient Ferghana (the Chinese campaigns of 104-102 BC) by H. Abdullaev (in Russian)

Edward Rtveladze's Home Page - with complete bibliography list and the encyclopaedic book "The Great Silk Road" on a CD