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The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: ZH - Z - I - J

ZH.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
ZHAGA – a (hand) saw Close to the Adig ZHAGA and the Abazin ZHZHVAGA (‘iron harrow’) [RAS, 39]    
ZHEGL – a joke pin DZHG (‘ox yoke’) [ARS, 174] Pashto  
ZHELVA - a tortoise JELIW (‘a cover’) [GASK, 363] Wakhi  
ZHERKA – the old name of the water-mills, preserved in Sevlievo and Trnovo districts SHERG (‘water-mill’) from JAR (‘a stone’) [IJa, 203] and JEREW (‘to press, to crush’) [GASK, 363] Ishkashimi, Wakhi  
ZHIVOT – life (noun). The Bulgarian word for ‘life’ as opposed to the common Slavic ZHIZN’ DZHIWAK, DZWAK (‘a life’) [ARS, 210-220; MGA; etc.] Pashto  
ZHIZLAK – a hornet (dial.) (Dobrudzha) ZIGOLOG (‘a hornet’) [IJa, 254]  

CHIZH (‘a hornet’) [ChRS]

Ishkashimi
Chechen
ZHIMI BOGA! – ‘My God!’ (dial.) (in the district of Okhrid, etc.) Compare to the Talish CHIMI (‘my’) [TRS, 290]. Taking into account that the old word for ‘God’ in the Pamirs was BAGA (with the ancient ending –A, characteristic for Sanskrit and Avestan), the whole expression ZHIMI BOGA! can be regarded as being brought by the old Bulgars. Talish  
ZHULJU – weak, feeble man DZMULA (‘weak, feeble’) [ARS, 1970, MGA]  

From this stem is also the Bulgarian word OSHMULEN (‘low-spirited’)

Pashto  
 
 
Z.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
ZAGARIJA – a type of wheat; ZAKHIRE, ZAJRE – a general word for all types grains ZKHGJR (‘millet’), ZGKHARA (‘bread of millet’) [ARS, 294-295]  

In Chuvash (Middle Volga) the same word is preserved as CAKHAR (SAKHAR), a legacy from the Volga Bulgars. 

Probably these words were derived from the Pamirian word for ‘reddish’ – ZANGOR, leading to ZANGOR for ‘millet’. 

Going along this line, to the Bulgarian word for ‘wheat’ – ZHITO, corresponds the Pamirian ZHIT (‘yellow’). That is, ZHITO was derived from the yellow colour of the wheat grains.

Pashto 1. ZAGARIJA 

turk. zag~are ("millet", rare, 19th cent. redhouse)  < pers. zag~a:re "millet" 

2. ZAKHIRA, ZAJRA 

turk. zahi^re (stored grain) < `ar. *dh*axi^ra(t) (provisions)

the chuvash word is interesting but I have been unable to find it. the chuvash word given for millet is a turkic one, cognate  to turkish darI.

Pamirian
ZALK – a bite, mouthful Compare to the Pamirian ZAL (‘to fill’) Pamirian  
ZAMAN – an epoch Similar in Sarikoli [SRS, 220] Sarikoli turk. zaman "epoch, time" < `ar. zama:n
ZARAN – morning A common Pamirian word – ZAAR, ZAARE [GASK, 444; etc.] Wakhi  
ZAKHARLACHEN (in the district of Razgrad), ZAKHIRACHE (in the district of Trnovo) – weak, ill ZAKHER (‘weak, feeble’) [ARS, 299] Pashto  
ZAKHUT – a lavatory in the district of (Razgrad), ZAKHUTJAM – to throw (in the districts of Chirpan, Shumen) ZKHOT (‘a lavatory’) [TRS, 105] Talish  
ZER – really, indeed. In expressions "ima zer, taka zer" Compare to the Pashto DZER (‘much, stressed’) [ARS, 279] Pashto  
ZID – wall, with derivatives ZIDAR (‘a mason’), ZIDAM (‘to build’), ZIDARIJA (‘masonry’). Two words of this stem are attested in medieval sources – Z’DCHII (‘a builder’) and ZITKOI (‘a fortified district’) The oldest analogy is the Sumerian ZID (‘a barrier’), the Urartian SID (‘to build’). 
 
 
 

ZID (‘a barrier’) [LRS, 129]

Lezgin
ZIMA – a spleen (dial.) ZILIZ (‘a spleen’) [GI, 1978], ZJL-ZAM in Gukhul. 

ZEKHMAJ (‘a bleeding area, a wound’) [DE, 348]

Eastern Caucasian
Jazguljami
ZOB – grain, grain provender  ZOB [ARS], ZUOW [DE, 351], ZAW [SRS, 255] – ‘grain, wheat’ Jazguljami, Sarikoli  
ZURLA – a snout, muzzle of pig ZURLA (‘a swearing, curse’) [ARS, 298] Pashto  
ZZNA – to shiver, to shake with cold Compare to the Chechen ZU’Z (‘shivering’), ZU’ZANA 

Talish ZJZ (‘fear, terror’) [TRS, 106] 

Wakhi ZJSK (‘to shiver with cold’) [GASK, 365]

Chechen
Talish
Wakhi
ZM – a snake (dial.) SHKHJM (‘grass-snake’) [RAS, 523] Eastern Caucasian  
ZNZA – miserd, niggard  ZND (‘to rob’) [GASK, 517] Wakhi  
 
 
I.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
ILIGA – in the children’s game ILIGA-PILIGA (a game with ten fingers) From the old Bulgar word ELIGA (‘ten’, noun). As in the Pamirs and in the Eastern Caucasus IL means ‘many’, while PELG is ‘finger’ in the Eastern Caucasus, ILIGA-PILIGA simply means ‘ten fingers’ Pamirian
Eastern Caucasian
INDRISHE – geranium Most probably from the Pamirian stem ENDAR (‘inner, home’). Thus INDRISHE – ‘a home flower’. Pamirian  
IKHU – an exclamation of happiness IK! IK! (‘THIS! THIS WAY!) [LRS, 135] Lezgin  
IJA – one’s husband’s sister (in the district of Vrshec) JIJ (‘brother-in-law’) [AG, 390]  

IJA (‘one’s husband’s sister’) [TRS, 110]

Mundzhani
Talish
JOROKLICA – in expression such as "Nevestice, joroklice" ("Oh, you bride, you joroklica"), "Nevestice, oruglice", etc. The Bulgarian etymological dictionary [BER, II, 108] correctly pointed to the similarity with JORUGVA (KHORUGVA) (‘a gonfalon’), which itself is unclear.  From the Mundzhani, also Persian, JORO (‘a prayer to God’) [AG, 390], also YO-RAP (‘a call to God, a promise before God’) [GASK, 510]
Mundzhani, Wakhi
YORO < YO RAP < `ar. (ya: rabb "o lord!"), ya: rabbi "o my lord!"
JOSA, JOSI – a general name of the sheep’s offsprings  JOS (‘young animals, lambs’) [IJa, 252; GASK, 511; etc.] Ishkashimi, Wakhi  
 
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