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The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: R - S - T

R.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
RABOSH – tally. The RABOSHes were a traditional method to keep business accounts. From RAB (‘a cutting’) [LRS, 189]  

RWOSH (‘a tangle, interlacing’) [TRS, 189]

Lezgin
Talish
RAVAN – a ride at easy pace, amble RAWAN (‘a walk’) [DE, 219; etc.] Jazguljami turk. revan (litt. ) < pers. reva:n 
RAZAKIJA – a sort of grapes. In the song "Vino pija – vino-razakija". ("I drink wine, a wine-RAZAKIJA.") RAZ (‘grapes’, noun), RAZAKI (‘grape’, adj.) [TRS, 189] Talish turk. razakI, razIqi^ < `ar. ra:zIqiyya(t) pers. razaqi^
RAKA – Holy relics, saints; bones RAKA (‘bones’) in Avar [SH, 35]  

RAG (‘flesh, tendon’) [DE, 219]

Eastern Caucasian
Jazguljami
RAKLA – a chest; a closet Probably from RAK (‘a door’) [LRS, 271] Lezgin turk. rahle "a low desk" < `ar. raHla(t)
RAPAN – a sea snail, periwinkle The only analogy is the Talish ROPAN (‘snails’) [TRS, 193] Talish  
RACHA – to accept, to agree RAZH (‘a consent’) [DE, 227; GASK, 336] Jazguljami, Wakhi  
RACHEL – a treacle (golden syrup) RACHIN (‘pleasant, tasty’) [TRS, 188] Talish turk. rec,el < pers. ric,a:r (a non literary loan)
REZE – a latch, a bolt REZE (‘a latch’) [TRS, 189] Talish turk. reze (hinge, thumb lock) < pers. reze < `ar. razza(t)
RENDE – a plane (tool) A common Eastern Caucasian word from RAND (‘to plane’). The Talish language shows the greatest variety of meanings for this word. Eastern Caucasian turk. rende ("plane") < persian rende < pehlevi *rendeg ( `ar. rendec)
Talish
RESNA – a fringe; a tassel RESSE (‘a row’) [TRS, 189] Talish turk. resen "cord, rope, halter" (litt.) < `ar. rasan
RIGAN – marjoram, basilica Identical to the Pamirian REJKHAN [GASK, 443] Wakhi turk. reyhan < `ar. reyHa:n
RID – a hill, an elevation RID (‘a part of something, a branching’) [TRS, 189] Talish  
RITAM – to kick RT (‘to fight’) [GASK, 223] Wakhi  
ROKAM – to count, to calculate RGM (‘a digit’) [TRS, 189] Talish turk. rakam (numeral) < `ar. raqam
ROKAN - abacus A derivative from ROKAM, see above.    
RUCHAM – to eat From RUCH (‘a morning’) [AGK, 161]  

In the Bulgarian folk tradition the RUCHOK was a morning meal.

Dardic  
RUCHOK See RUCHAM.    
RSJA – to sprinkle,  From the stem RS (‘to sprinkle above’) [IJa, 231] Ishkashimi  
RT – a hill, a ridge Similar to the Talish RID, see above. 

Also to the Pamirian RT (‘a high place’).

Talish
Pamirian
RTJA  Compare to the Pamirian RTT (‘to grow, to germinate’) [DE, 224] Jazguljami
RFAM – to worry, to tear at The Slavic RVAT’ (‘to tear’) does not explain the special sound F. Closer to RFAM is the Pamirian RFG (‘a caustic, biting man’) Pamirian  
 
 
S.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
SABJA – a sword, a sabre SHAB (‘a dagger’) [ARS, 336] Pashto  
SAKAM – to want SHKAW (‘to seek’) [SRS, 210] Sarikoli  
SAL, SADE – a variants of SAMO (‘only; solely’) SAL (‘only’) [SRS, 151]  

SADE, SAL (‘only’) [SH, 113]

Sarikoli turk. salt (only) 

turk. sade < perisan sa^de

Eastern Caucasian
SAMO – only, solely SAM (‘a little bit, partially’), SAM (‘a part’) [DE, 231] Jazguljami  
SVILA – silk (noun) Probably from SWIL (‘to shine’) [ARS, MGA] Pashto  
SVIRJA – to play (music) Similar to the Slavic SVISTET’ (‘to whistle’) but not quite. 

SHPILAK (‘a whistle’) [RPDS, 629] 

STVINI, STVIRI (‘whistling’) in Georgian 

Pamirian
SVIRKA – a whistle A derivative from SVIRJA, see above. 

SHUVIR (‘a bagpipe’) in Mari [RMS, 79]

Pamirian
SGUR – cinder  SKORG (‘charcoals’) [GASK, 467] Wakhi  
SEGA – now, at present SEK (‘now’) in Kati [AGK, 153] Dardic  
SECVAM SE – to bend down (in the back) SECA (‘to break, to cut’) [ChRS] Chechen  
SINIGER – titmouse  CHINURGO (‘titmouse’) [AG, 286] Mundzhani  
SINOR – (field) boundary, boundary strip SINOR (‘narrow’) [GASK, 459] Wakhi turk. sInIr
SIRISHTE – a rennet  SIRESH (‘a viscid fluid’) [IJa, 235; etc.]  

From this stem are probably the Bulgarian words SIRISHTE, SSIRVAM (‘to curdle, to clot’), SSIREK (‘a clot’) 

Compare also to the Wakhi and Tadzhik SIRKA (‘vinegar, yeast’) [GASK, 449]

Ishkashimi  
SIROMAKH – a poor man CIRI (‘ragged, tattered’) [ARS, MGA]  

CIRIMAK (‘lamentable, deplorable’) [DIE, 291]

Pashto
Dardic
SIRJAV – dirty. In the expression "Sirjava vlna". ("SIRJAVA wool.") SURAW (‘dirty’) [AGK, 193]  

Compare also to the Eastern Caucasian CURO (‘dirty, muddy’).

Dardic
Eastern Caucasian
SKAT – a slope (also of a roof); a roof (dial.) SKAD (‘a roof’) [DE, 244] Jazguljami  
SKUT – a lap SKUD (‘a shelter’) [IJa, 238] Ishkashimi  
SLANA – a frost From SRANA (‘a frost’) [TRS, 318] with a transition of "r" to "l". Talish  
SMOK – a grass-snake SHKHJM (‘a grass-snake’) [RAS, 523] Eastern Caucasian  
SOKAJ – bride’s veil Compare to the Eastern Caucasian SUCHKAJ (‘a coil, a winding’) [SH, 95] Eastern Caucasian  
STOMANA – steel (noun) Compare to the Eastern Caucasian STOMA (‘thick, strong’) 

STOMANA (‘hardened, tempered’) [ARS, MGA]

Eastern Caucasian
Pashto
STOMNA – a pitcher, an earthen jug STOMA (‘round, paunchy, big-bellied’) [ChRS, 381] Chechen  
STOPANIN – an owner, a proprietor Probably from the Sanskrit STU-PANA. 

Compare also the Caucasian STU (‘property’) [ChRS] and the Dravidian STAVANA (‘a farm’)

Chechen
STUD – a cold From the Pamirian STUD [IJa, DE], SITU [SRS, 307] – a cold. Ishkashimi, Sarikoli  
STRGA – a survey, a visit to the home of a prospective bride (in Dobrudzha, in the district of Shumen) STRGA (‘an eye’) in Pashto [ARS, MGA]  

Therefore the Bulgarian STRGA meant ‘a view, an inspection’.

Pashto  
STRGALO – a promenade in the centre of a town  From STRGA, see above.    
SUKMAN – low-cut sleeveless dress, a tunic Similar to the Dargin (Eastern Caucasus) SUKBAN [SH, 94] and the Pamirian CHAKMAN. Eastern Caucasian attributed to old bulgarian, also mentioned is Cokman - a dressing gown (Pamirian)

< turkic soqman

(see doerfer pers. su:qma:n < turkic)

both soqman, suqman (suq= to thrust - clauson's reconstruction, osman soq=) and c,ekmen (c,ek= to pull) are turkic. northwest turkic would use u. it seems to have entered in this form into various slavic languages, hungarian and romanian in this form.

sokman a high boot (overshoe) in osman, while cepken (< c,ekmen) is used for a type of jacket.

doerfer considers sakman, sa~kman to be russian loanword in chuvash, arguing from c,ekmen. I don't know how it is from soqman. doerfer seems to attribute it to the later period (but pre-ottoman) of turkic loanwords in bulgarian

Pamirian
SURVA – in the expression "SURVA, SURVA GODINA!" ("Happy New Year!") The meaning of this expression is clear from one already dissappeared old Bulgar term – SURF, which meant "holy, blessed". 

Compare to the Pamirian SURKH (‘fair’) and the Armenian SURB (‘sacred’)

Pamirian
SUROVATKA – whey  The connection to the Slavic SUROV (‘raw’, adj.) is doubtful. 

The Eastern Caucasian CURU (‘whey’), CURUVAL (‘sour’), also CURU NEK (‘yoghurt’) [LRS, 359], offer a better explanation.

Lezgin
SUCHA – to suck SUK (‘to be thirsty’) [IJa, 248] Ishkashimi  
SUKALCHE – a suckling Derived from SUCHA, see above.    
SJANKA – a shade; a shadow A common Pamirian word. The closest analogy is SANGA [AG, 356] Mundzhani  
 
 
T.
 
Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
TAZI – this (fem.) TAS (‘this’, fem.) [DIE, 249] Dardic  
TAKA – thus, so TAKYA (‘thus’) [DE, 263] Jazguljami  
TALPA – a plank TALB (‘a plank’) [DE, 261] Jazguljami  
TANTUREST – pudge, podgy TANDU (‘fat’, adj.) [ARS]  

TANDRST (‘fat’, adj.) [DE, 262]

Pashto
Jazguljami
TARM – in the expression "Dva vakli ovcherja ss tarm kalpaci". ("Two dark-haired shepherds with TARM fur caps".) TARAM (‘stretched, upright, beautiful’), TARAM SHEJ (‘a beautiful thing’), TARAMVAL (‘a beautiful posture’) [LRS, 332]  

The Bulgarian TARM KALPACI meant ‘upright caps’.

Lezgin  
TACHA – to respect, to esteem TACHA (‘a crown’) in Tadzhik [SRS, 175] Sarikoli  
TEGARCHUK – in the folk story "The bear and the TEGARCHUK". Unclear word. Compare to the Pamirian TEGAR (‘a beam, a joist’) [DE, 260] The story does evolve around a tree. Jazguljami  
TIGAN – a frying pan TIGKHNA (‘a frying pan’) [ARS, 151] Pashto  
TICHAM – to run TIDZH (‘to walk, to depart’) [SRS, 180] Sarikoli  
TLAKA – a working-bee TLEL (‘to visit s.o.’) [RPDS, 265, 726] Pamirian  
TOKU – just; at once, suddenly TOQ (‘at once’) [SRS, 176] Sarikoli  
TOPKA – a ball TOP (‘a ball’) [GASK, 481] Wakhi turk. top
TOR – a manure, a dung TJR (‘manure’) [TRS, 215]  

TERJS (‘manure’) in Mari [RMS, 338]

Talish
TOJAGA – a stick, a staff A common Pamirian word. Compare to TIJAK, TIJOK (‘a stick’) [IJa, 210] Ishkashimi bulghar < turkic.

old turkic taya:q (litterally "prop, support") 
"staff, (walking) stick"

old turkish dayak, modern meaning "beating"

TRAKHANA Compare to the Pamirian TROXP (‘yoghurt’) [IJa, 241] Ishkashimi turk. tarhana (dried curds and flour, soup from it) < pers. terx(w)a:ne
TRINA – fresh hay  TRINGA (‘fresh’) [AG, 369] Mundzhani  
TRGVAM – to start, to set off TRL, TLEL (‘to go, to walk’) [RPDS, 265] Pamirian  
TURJAM – to put, to place TURE (‘upper’, 'put above’) [DIE, 274-275] Dardic  
TRSJA – to look for, to seek  TARSH (‘a dog-seeker’) [ChRS, 394] Chechen  
TRTJA – to dart off TJRT (‘a ford’) [GASK, 482] Wakhi  
 
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